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Editorials

A fresh approach to water p253

The water shortage that threatens humanity will have wide-ranging consequences for agriculture and energy production, requiring significant shifts in the way this precious resource is managed.

doi:10.1038/452253a

See also: Editor's summary


Warning signs p254

Giving drug firms immunity from prosecution over inaccurate labelling would not serve the public.

doi:10.1038/452254a


The EIT farce p254

Universities should target the challenges that a virtual technology powerhouse probably won't meet.

doi:10.1038/452254b


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p256

doi:10.1038/452256a


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Journal Club

Journal club p257

Masayuki Inoue

doi:10.1038/452257a


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News

222 NIH grants: 22 researchers p258

Grandee grantees are sitting pretty through agency cash crisis.

Eric Hand

doi:10.1038/452258a


The Solar System's first breath p259

NASA's Genesis probe offers clues to the Sun's oxygen.

Eric Hand

doi:10.1038/452259a


Purification with a pinch of salt p260

Climate change, growing populations and political concerns are prompting governments and investors from California to China to take a fresh look at desalination. Quirin Schiermeier wades in.

Quirin Schiermeier

doi:10.1038/452260a


Banking on the future of stem cells p263

Representatives of 21 stem-cell funding agencies from 19 countries — members of the International Stem Cell Forum — met in San Francisco at the end of February to discuss collaborations and how to coordinate cell banks and registries. Among them was Leszek Borysiewicz, head of the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), who spoke to Nature about the effort.

Leszek Borysiewicz

doi:10.1038/452263a


Sidelines p264

Scribbles on the margins of science.

doi:10.1038/452264a


Fly's eye detector spies cosmic-ray cut-off p264

Philip Ball

doi:10.1038/452264b


Snapshot: Zooloddities p265

Anna Petherick

doi:10.1038/452265a


Stem-cell patents confirmed p265

Victory for Wisconsin foundation in landmark ruling.

Erika Check Hayden

doi:10.1038/452265b


Revised ozone standard angers environmentalists p266

doi:10.1038/452266a


Wellcome awards reveal microscopic masterpieces p266

doi:10.1038/452266b


Fresh safety concerns for popular anaemia drugs p266

doi:10.1038/452266c


Saturn flyby is a success despite computer glitch p267

doi:10.1038/452267a


Bonn to play host to dementia research centre p267

doi:10.1038/452267b


Korean institute inquiry prompts two retractions p267

doi:10.1038/452267c


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News Features

Water: Water under pressure p269

doi:10.1038/452269a


Water: A long dry summer p270

In parts of the world already facing unreliable food supplies, an uncertain climate adds to the future stress for soils, plants and people. Quirin Schiermeier reports on water strategies for a drier world.

doi:10.1038/452270a


Water: More crop per drop p273

Farmers' yields in the developing world are often limited by unreliable rains. Improving their harvests will require plant breeders, agronomists and geneticists to pull together — but can these experts work out their differences? Emma Marris reports.

doi:10.1038/452273a


Water: Muddy waters p278

India's population is growing, and its water supplies are not keeping pace. Can an ambitious scheme to connect up the country's rivers slake the nation's deepening thirst? Daemon Fairless investigates.

doi:10.1038/452278a


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Correspondence

Wildlife disease can put conservation at risk p282

Darrick T. Evensen

doi:10.1038/452282a


Hall and Keynes join Arbor in the citation indexes p282

Daniel C. Postellon

doi:10.1038/452282b


Growth of activism calls for more thoughtful solutions p282

doi:10.1038/452282c


How genetic censorship would harm everyone p282

Marcelino Fuentes

doi:10.1038/452282d


Qualities of a lone author are beneficial to science p282

Kevin Hallock

doi:10.1038/452282e


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Commentaries

Improving on haves and have-nots p283

All-or-nothing targets for global access to basic amenities such as drinking water and sanitation are outdated. The time has come, says Jamie Bartram, for a more fluid approach.

doi:10.1038/452283a

See also: Editor's summary


The energy challenge p285

Global energy consumption is expected to grow by 50% by 2030, squeezing already scarce water resources. Mike Hightower and Suzanne A. Pierce recommend ways to integrate water and energy planning.

doi:10.1038/452285a

See also: Editor's summary


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Books and Arts

Internet as utility? p287

A sceptic argues that the electricity industry's tale predicts a digital future of diminished privacy.

John Browning reviews The Big Switch: Our New Digital Destiny by Nicholas Carr

doi:10.1038/452287a

See also: Editor's summary


Film: Water policy in the can p288

Emma Marris

doi:10.1038/452288a

See also: Editor's summary


Exhibition: Water works p289

Nick Thomas

doi:10.1038/452289a


Galileo the artist p289

Thomas de Padova reviews Galilei der Künstler. Die Zeichnung, der Mond, die Sonne by Horst Bredekamp

doi:10.1038/452289b


Echoes of time in images of the Antarctic p290

British landscape artist Chris Drury imaginatively interprets radar pictures taken of ancient ice layers underneath the south pole.

Martin Kemp reviews

doi:10.1038/452290a


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Essay

Water: Water — an enduring mystery p291

Yet another theory of liquid water structure raises questions about interdisciplinarity, drug design, astrobiology, molecular biology, geochemistry and more.

Philip Ball

doi:10.1038/452291a

See also: Editor's summary


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News and Views

Particle physics: Song of the electroweak penguin p293

An unexpected imbalance in how particles containing the heaviest quarks decay might reveal exotic influences — and perhaps help to explain why matter, rather than antimatter, dominates the Universe.

Michael E. Peskin

doi:10.1038/452293a

See also: Editor's summary


Physiology: Brain comes to light p294

To perceive seasons, animals compare changes in day length with the constant cycle of their inner circadian clock. At a molecular level, light signals trigger coordinated gene-expression events in the brain.

Hitoshi Okamura

doi:10.1038/452294a

See also: Editor's summary


50 & 100 Years Ago p295

doi:10.1038/452295a


Extrasolar planets: A whiff of methane p296

Investigations of planets outside our Solar System are becoming ever more sophisticated. The latest development is the discovery of a carbon-containing molecule in the atmosphere of one such extrasolar body.

Adam P. Showman

doi:10.1038/452296a

See also: Editor's summary


Drug discovery: Schistosome treatment p296

Sadaf Shadan

doi:10.1038/452296b


Human behaviour: Punisher pays p297

The tendency of humans to punish perceived free-loaders, even at a cost to themselves, is an evolutionary puzzle: punishers perish, and those who benefit the most are those who have never punished at all.

Manfred Milinski & Bettina Rockenbach

doi:10.1038/452297a

See also: Editor's summary


Quantum physics: Disturbance without the force p298

Charged particles influenced by electromagnetic fields, even when the two never touch? Surely, it can only be quantum physics. But surprisingly, the quantum nature of this particular effect has been disputed.

Akira Tonomura & Franco Nori

doi:10.1038/452298a


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Brief Communications Arising

Do abnormal responses show utilitarian bias? pE5

Guy Kahane & Nicholas Shackel

doi:10.1038/nature06785


Koenigs et al. reply pE5

M. Koenigs, L. Young, R. Adolphs, D. Tranel, F. Cushman, M. Hauser & A. Damasio

doi:10.1038/nature06804


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Review

Science and technology for water purification in the coming decades p301

Mark A. Shannon, Paul W. Bohn, Menachem Elimelech, John G. Georgiadis, Benito J. Mariñas & Anne M. Mayes

doi:10.1038/nature06599

See also: Editor's summary


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Articles

Ancient, highly heterogeneous mantle beneath Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean p311

Chuan-Zhou Liu, Jonathan E. Snow, Eric Hellebrand, Gerhard Brügmann, Anette von der Handt, Anette Büchl & Albrecht W. Hofmann

doi:10.1038/nature06688


Thyrotrophin in the pars tuberalis triggers photoperiodic response p317

Nobuhiro Nakao, Hiroko Ono, Takashi Yamamura, Tsubasa Anraku, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Kumiko Higashi, Shinobu Yasuo, Yasuhiro Katou, Saburo Kageyama, Yumiko Uno, Takeya Kasukawa, Masayuki Iigo, Peter J. Sharp, Atsushi Iwasawa, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Teruyuki Niimi, Makoto Mizutani, Takao Namikawa, Shizufumi Ebihara, Hiroki R. Ueda & Takashi Yoshimura

doi:10.1038/nature06738

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Okamura


Translational control of the innate immune response through IRF-7 p323

Rodney Colina, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Ryan J. O. Dowling, Maritza Jaramillo, Lee-Hwa Tai, Caroline J. Breitbach, Yvan Martineau, Ola Larsson, Liwei Rong, Yuri V. Svitkin, Andrew P. Makrigiannis, John C. Bell & Nahum Sonenberg

doi:10.1038/nature06730

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

The presence of methane in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet p329

Mark R. Swain, Gautam Vasisht & Giovanna Tinetti

doi:10.1038/nature06823

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Showman


Difference in direct charge-parity violation between charged and neutral B meson decays p332

The Belle Collaboration

doi:10.1038/nature06827

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Peskin


Super-chondritic Sm/Nd ratios in Mars, the Earth and the Moon p336

Guillaume Caro, Bernard Bourdon, Alex N. Halliday & Ghylaine Quitté

doi:10.1038/nature06760

See also: Editor's summary


Biodiversity and biogeography of phages in modern stromatolites and thrombolites p340

Christelle Desnues, Beltran Rodriguez-Brito, Steve Rayhawk, Scott Kelley, Tuong Tran, Matthew Haynes, Hong Liu, Mike Furlan, Linda Wegley, Betty Chau, Yijun Ruan, Dana Hall, Florent E. Angly, Robert A. Edwards, Linlin Li, Rebecca Vega Thurber, R. Pamela Reid, Janet Siefert, Valeria Souza, David L. Valentine, Brandon K. Swan, Mya Breitbart & Forest Rohwer

doi:10.1038/nature06735

See also: Editor's summary


Survival variability and population density in fish populations p344

Coilín Minto, Ransom A. Myers & Wade Blanchard

doi:10.1038/nature06605

See also: Editor's summary


Winners don't punish p348

Anna Dreber, David G. Rand, Drew Fudenberg & Martin A. Nowak

doi:10.1038/nature06723

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Milinski & Rockenbach


Identifying natural images from human brain activity p352

Kendrick N. Kay, Thomas Naselaris, Ryan J. Prenger & Jack L. Gallant

doi:10.1038/nature06713

See also: Editor's summary


Memory CD4 T cells emerge from effector T-cell progenitors p356

Laurie E. Harrington, Karen M. Janowski, James R. Oliver, Allan J. Zajac & Casey T. Weaver

doi:10.1038/nature06672


Preserving cell shape under environmental stress p361

Boaz Cook, Robert W. Hardy, William B. McConnaughey & Charles S. Zuker

doi:10.1038/nature06603


Control of chromosome stability by the beta-TrCP–REST–Mad2 axis p365

Daniele Guardavaccaro, David Frescas, N. Valerio Dorrello, Angelo Peschiaroli, Asha S. Multani, Timothy Cardozo, Anna Lasorella, Antonio Iavarone, Sandy Chang, Eva Hernando & Michele Pagano

doi:10.1038/nature06641


SCFbeta-TRCP controls oncogenic transformation and neural differentiation through REST degradation p370

Thomas F. Westbrook, Guang Hu, Xiaolu L. Ang, Peter Mulligan, Natalya N. Pavlova, Anthony Liang, Yumei Leng, Rene Maehr, Yang Shi, J. Wade Harper & Stephen J. Elledge

doi:10.1038/nature06780


X-ray structure of a prokaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channel p375

Ricarda J. C. Hilf & Raimund Dutzler

doi:10.1038/nature06717


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Corrigendum

Structural basis for the function and inhibition of an influenza virus proton channel p380

Amanda L. Stouffer, Rudresh Acharya, David Salom, Anna S. Levine, Luigi Di Costanzo, Cinque S. Soto, Valentina Tereshko, Vikas Nanda, Steven Stayrook & William F. DeGrado

doi:10.1038/nature06845


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Prospects p381

Should the NIH spread its wealth?

Gene Russo

doi:10.1038/nj7185-381a


Special Report

Closing the gaps p382

US researchers are keen to find ways to address health disparities among minorities. Paul Smaglik reports.

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7185-382a


Career View

Mike Tyers, director of the Scottish Universities Life Sciences Alliance, Edinburgh, Scotland p384

Cell-division researcher makes move from Canada to Scotland.

Jill U. Adams

doi:10.1038/nj7185-384a


Sea change in business studies p384

New degree for oceanographers with a business bent.

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7185-384b


Thinner air p384

I'm on a field-research high.

Aliza le Roux

doi:10.1038/nj7185-384c


Highlights

Highlight: Francophone

doi:10.1038/nj0199


Opportunities: The National Institutes of Health

doi:10.1038/nj0200


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Futures

Shambles p386

A new career for the home help.

Alexander Hay

doi:10.1038/452386a


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