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Editorials

Rising to the climate challenge p755

The award of a Nobel prize to an advisory body in the science of climate change rightly reflects the organization's many virtues, and should spur it on in its mission to assess and address global warming.

doi:10.1038/449755a


Do-it-yourself science p755

How much involvement can patient advocates have in genetics?

doi:10.1038/449755b


Criteria creep p756

The politically motivated extension of a US stem-cell registry makes no scientific sense.

doi:10.1038/449756a


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p758

doi:10.1038/449758a


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Journal Club

Journal club p759

Andre Geim

doi:10.1038/449759a


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Correction

Correction p759

doi:10.1038/449759b


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News

French agency head resigns in cancer row p760

Lawsuit over screening test pits researcher against her own firm.

Declan Butler

doi:10.1038/449760a


Particle collider is on schedule... just p761

CERN's new machine still aiming for 2008 debut.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi:10.1038/449761a


So similar, yet so different p762

Tiny pieces of the genome can already explain many human characteristics. Erika Check Hayden looks at what they might reveal in the future.

Erika Check Hayden

doi:10.1038/449762a


The shape of protein structures to come p765

Modelling effort uses mass computing power to make breakthrough.

Ewen Callaway

doi:10.1038/449765a


Sidelines p766

Scribbles on the margins of science.

doi:10.1038/449766a


Climate change: a Nobel cause p766

article.summary

Quirin Schiermeier & Jeff Tollefson

doi:10.1038/news.2007.164


Happy birthday p767

Chemist's work on surface reactions secures an unusual present.

Daniel Cressey

doi:10.1038/449767a


Italian mafia accusd of trafficking nuclear waste p768

doi:10.1038/449768a


Scandinavian seals hit by deadly virus p768

doi:10.1038/449768b


Earth scientists aim to gauge US thirst p768

doi:10.1038/449768c


Equal pay for women in science is achievable p769

doi:10.1038/449769a


Cancer institute named after benefactor p769

doi:10.1038/449769b


Best of nature p769

doi:10.1038/449769c


Massive volcanic eruption seen on jovian moon p769

doi:10.1038/449769d


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Business

Missing the mark p770

Genetic tests to detect cancer are feasible. But with researchers drowning in a sea of biomarkers and little financial incentive to get the tests on the shelves, the idea is floundering. Virginia Gewin reports.

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/449770a


Scoring high p771

doi:10.1038/449771a


Drug production p771

doi:10.1038/449771b


Aiming low p771

doi:10.1038/449771c


Market watch p771

Colin Macilwain

doi:10.1038/449771d


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News Features

Personal genomics: His daughter's DNA p773

Despite a training in clinical genetics, Hugh Rienhoff didn't know what was wrong with his daughter. So, as he tells Brendan Maher, he set about finding out.

doi:10.1038/449773a


Climate change: What's in the rising tide? p778

The nitrogen cycle rarely features in the grim litany of things at risk from global warming. Nick Lane reports on research that might change this — with grave consequences for ocean chemistry.

doi:10.1038/449778a


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Correspondence

Geo-engineering might cause, not cure, problems p781

John Shepherd, Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez & Andrew Yool

doi:10.1038/449781a


Heavy workload may have led to mistakes in review p781

Daniel S. Greenberg

doi:10.1038/449781b


Funding basic research brings unexpected benefits p781

Philip Esler

doi:10.1038/449781c


One-vesicle hypothesis has been extensively discussed p781

Henri Korn, Donald Faber, Antoine Triller & Alain Mallet

doi:10.1038/449781d


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Commentary

Common sense for our genomes p783

A personal DNA sequence is not yet practically useful. But it could be, argues Steven E. Brenner, if we had the right resources available to interpret genomes.

doi:10.1038/449783a

See also: Editor's summary


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Books and Arts

A life worth writing about p785

Craig Venter's autobiography recounts the conflict and controversy that have contributed to his celebrity.

Jan Witkowski reviews A Life Decoded: My Genome: My Life by Craig Venter

doi:10.1038/449785a

See also: Editor's summary


A gallery of micrographs p786

doi:10.1038/449786a


Honest Jim talks manners p787

Huntington F. Willard reviews Avoid Boring People: And Other Lessons from a Life in Science by James D. Watson

doi:10.1038/449787a

See also: Editor's summary


From alchemy to chemistry p788

Philip Ball reviews Andreas Libavius and the Transformation of Alchemy: Separating Chemical Cultures with Polemical Fire by Bruce T. Moran and Chymists and Chymistry: Studies in the History of Alchemy and Early Modern Chemistry

doi:10.1038/449788a


Science in culture: Paris gets a new cultural crucible p789

Scientific breakthroughs are reached through aesthetic, as well as scientific methods, argues a bioengineer, who is this week opening a culture centre to explore such creativity.

David Edwards

doi:10.1038/449789a


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Essay

Science & politics

Big lessons for a healthy future p791

This week's report on obesity policy in the United Kingdom highlights three challenges for scientists and politicians working together.

David A. King & Sandy M. Thomas

doi:10.1038/449791a


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News and Views

Palaeoanthropology: The coast in colour p793

A South African cave overlooking the Indian Ocean was apparently a desirable residence for early humans. The site has provided rich evidence for the early use of colour and marine resources.

Sally McBrearty & Chris Stringer

doi:10.1038/449793a

See also: Editor's summary


Earth science: An Indian cheetah p795

After the supercontinent of Gondwanaland broke up, the part that became India diverged especially swiftly from the other fragments. The explanation for this might lie in the loss of India's deep roots.

R. Dietmar Müller

doi:10.1038/449795a


String theory: Back to basics p797

Long touted as a theory of everything, it seems that string theory may at last succeed as a theory of something very specific — the interactions of particles under the strong nuclear force.

Hermann Nicolai

doi:10.1038/449797a


50 & 100 Years Ago p797

doi:10.1038/449797b


Microbiology: Preparing the shot p798

Direct injection of proteins into host cells is one of the tricks bacteria use during infection. It seems that, to achieve this, the stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori first grabs the cell by its surface receptors.

Christof R. Hauck

doi:10.1038/449798a

See also: Editor's summary


Astronomy: Black holes go extragalactic p799

The mass of a black hole beyond our Galaxy has been calculated, thanks to the presence of an associated star. The hole is the weightiest yet, placing intriguing constraints on how this binary system developed.

Tomasz Bulik

doi:10.1038/449799a

See also: Editor's summary


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Insight: Host–microbe interactions

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Insight: Host–microbe interactions

Host–microbe interactions p803

Claudia Lupp

doi:10.1038/449803a


The Human Microbiome Project p804

Peter J. Turnbaugh, Ruth E. Ley, Micah Hamady, Claire M. Fraser-Liggett, Rob Knight & Jeffrey I. Gordon

doi:10.1038/nature06244


An ecological and evolutionary perspective on human–microbe mutualism and disease p811

Les Dethlefsen, Margaret McFall-Ngai & David A. Relman

doi:10.1038/nature06245


Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response p819

Ruslan Medzhitov

doi:10.1038/nature06246


Manipulation of host-cell pathways by bacterial pathogens p827

Amit P. Bhavsar, Julian A. Guttman & B. Brett Finlay

doi:10.1038/nature06247


Bacterial pathogenomics p835

Mark J. Pallen & Brendan W. Wren

doi:10.1038/nature06248



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Brief Communication Arising

A very faint core-collapse supernova in M85 pE1

A. Pastorello, M. Della Valle, S. J. Smartt, L. Zampieri, S. Benetti, E. Cappellaro, P. A. Mazzali, F. Patat, S. Spiro, M. Turatto & S. Valenti

doi:10.1038/nature06282


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Hypothesis

The equilibria that allow bacterial persistence in human hosts p843

Martin J. Blaser & Denise Kirschner

doi:10.1038/nature06198

See also: Editor's summary


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Articles

A second generation human haplotype map of over 3.1 million SNPs p851

The International HapMap Consortium

doi:10.1038/nature06258

See also: Editor's summary


Helicobacter exploits integrin for type IV secretion and kinase activation p862

Terry Kwok, Dana Zabler, Sylwia Urman, Manfred Rohde, Roland Hartig, Silja Wessler, Rolf Misselwitz, Jürgen Berger, Norbert Sewald, Wolfgang König & Steffen Backert

doi:10.1038/nature06187

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Hauck


Protein-based peptide-bond formation by aminoacyl-tRNA protein transferase p867

Kazunori Watanabe, Yukimatsu Toh, Kyoko Suto, Yoshihiro Shimizu, Natsuhisa Oka, Takeshi Wada & Kozo Tomita

doi:10.1038/nature06167


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Letters

A 15.65-solar-mass black hole in an eclipsing binary in the nearby spiral galaxy M 33 p872

Jerome A. Orosz, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Ramesh Narayan, Charles D. Bailyn, Joel D. Hartman, Lucas Macri, Jiefeng Liu, Wolfgang Pietsch, Ronald A. Remillard, Avi Shporer & Tsevi Mazeh

doi:10.1038/nature06218

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Bulik


Nature of the superconductor–insulator transition in disordered superconductors p876

Yonatan Dubi, Yigal Meir & Yshai Avishai

doi:10.1038/nature06180

See also: Editor's summary


Nucleation and growth mechanism of ferroelectric domain-wall motion p881

Young-Han Shin, Ilya Grinberg, I-Wei Chen & Andrew M. Rappe

doi:10.1038/nature06165


Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources p885

Bozhi Tian, Xiaolin Zheng, Thomas J. Kempa, Ying Fang, Nanfang Yu, Guihua Yu, Jinlin Huang & Charles M. Lieber

doi:10.1038/nature06181

See also: Editor's summary


Carbon dioxide release from the North Pacific abyss during the last deglaciation p890

Eric D. Galbraith, Samuel L. Jaccard, Thomas F. Pedersen, Daniel M. Sigman, Gerald H. Haug, Mea Cook, John R. Southon & Roger Francois

doi:10.1038/nature06227

See also: Editor's summary


The rapid drift of the Indian tectonic plate p894

Prakash Kumar, Xiaohui Yuan, M. Ravi Kumar, Rainer Kind, Xueqing Li & R. K. Chadha

doi:10.1038/nature06214

See also: News and Views by Müller


Anaerobic oxidation of short-chain hydrocarbons by marine sulphate-reducing bacteria p898

Olaf Kniemeyer, Florin Musat, Stefan M. Sievert, Katrin Knittel, Heinz Wilkes, Martin Blumenberg, Walter Michaelis, Arno Classen, Carsten Bolm, Samantha B. Joye & Friedrich Widdel

doi:10.1038/nature06200

See also: Editor's summary


Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia p902

Johannes Krause, Ludovic Orlando, David Serre, Bence Viola, Kay Prüfer, Michael P. Richards, Jean-Jacques Hublin, Catherine Hänni, Anatoly P. Derevianko & Svante Pääbo

doi:10.1038/nature06193

See also: Editor's summary


Early human use of marine resources and pigment in South Africa during the Middle Pleistocene p905

Curtis W. Marean, Miryam Bar-Matthews, Jocelyn Bernatchez, Erich Fisher, Paul Goldberg, Andy I. R. Herries, Zenobia Jacobs, Antonieta Jerardino, Panagiotis Karkanas, Tom Minichillo, Peter J. Nilssen, Erin Thompson, Ian Watts & Hope M. Williams

doi:10.1038/nature06204

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by McBrearty & Stringer


Turnover of sex chromosomes induced by sexual conflict p909

G. S. van Doorn & M. Kirkpatrick

doi:10.1038/nature06178


Genome-wide detection and characterization of positive selection in human populations p913

Pardis C. Sabeti, Patrick Varilly, Ben Fry, Jason Lohmueller, Elizabeth Hostetter, Chris Cotsapas, Xiaohui Xie, Elizabeth H. Byrne, Steven A. McCarroll, Rachelle Gaudet, Stephen F. Schaffner, Eric S. LanderThe International HapMap Consortium

doi:10.1038/nature06250

See also: Editor's summary


Interferon modulation of cellular microRNAs as an antiviral mechanism p919

Irene M. Pedersen, Guofeng Cheng, Stefan Wieland, Stefano Volinia, Carlo M. Croce, Francis V. Chisari & Michael David

doi:10.1038/nature06205

See also: Editor's summary


Architectural and mechanistic insights into an EHD ATPase involved in membrane remodelling

Oliver Daumke, Richard Lundmark, Yvonne Vallis, Sascha Martens, P. Jonathan G. Butler & Harvey T. McMahon

doi:10.1038/nature06173


Arginine methylation at histone H3R2 controls deposition of H3K4 trimethylation p928

Antonis Kirmizis, Helena Santos-Rosa, Christopher J. Penkett, Michael A. Singer, Michiel Vermeulen, Matthias Mann, Jürg Bähler, Roland D. Green & Tony Kouzarides

doi:10.1038/nature06160


Methylation of histone H3R2 by PRMT6 and H3K4 by an MLL complex are mutually exclusive p933

Ernesto Guccione, Christian Bassi, Fabio Casadio, Francesca Martinato, Matteo Cesaroni, Henning Schuchlautz, Bernhard Lüscher & Bruno Amati

doi:10.1038/nature06166

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Naturejobs

Prospect

Prospects p939

Is the geography of the Nobel prize changing? Does it matter?

Gene Russo

doi:10.1038/nj7164-939a


Special Report

DNA masters p940

As genetic testing becomes more common, the need rises for experts to interpret the results. Ricki Lewis reports.

Ricki Lewis

doi:10.1038/nj7164-940a


Region

Golden opportunities p942

With a variety of federal positions and a fledgling life-sciences sector, northern Virginia offers plenty of opportunities, from bench researcher to programme officer. Ted Agres reports.

Ted Agres

doi:10.1038/nj7164-942a


Career View

Bob Watson, chief scientific adviser, UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs p944

Science adviser extraordinare Bob Watson moves to Britain to take on multiple positions.

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7164-944a


A question of balance p944

Gender bias in Sweden?

Gunnel Gustafsson, Carl Jacobsson & Carolyn Glynn

doi:10.1038/nj7164-944b


Simulating life p944

Research on the computer has an interesting life of its own.

Peter Jordan

doi:10.1038/nj7164-944c



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Futures

Red p946

The gift of life.

Melissa Yuan-Innes

doi:10.1038/449946a



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