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Editorials

Avoiding a chimaera quagmire p1

Researchers need to take the initiative in addressing a controversial and urgent ethical issue: under what circumstances should the fusion of cells of animals and humans be permitted?

doi:10.1038/445001a


Libya and human values p2

Death sentences issued by a Libyan court highlight more than one type of injustice.

doi:10.1038/445002a


Enter Nature Photonics p2

doi:10.1038/445002b


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p4

doi:10.1038/445004a


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News

Europe condemns Libyan trial verdict p7

Death sentence for medics sparks outrage.

Declan Butler

doi:10.1038/445007a


The dark side of E. coli p8

How can we prevent more food poisoning outbreaks?

Helen Pearson

doi:10.1038/445008a


European funding targets big biology p8

Metagenomics and variomics benefit from round of grants.

Nora Eichinger

doi:10.1038/445008b


Open-access journal will publish first, judge later p9

PLoS One aims to challenge academia's obsession with journal status.

Jim Giles

doi:10.1038/445009a


Special Report: Alien Earth p10

With improved techniques, growing data sets and a new space mission, 2007 is the first year in which we might discover another planet like our own. Katharine Sanderson reports.

doi:10.1038/445010a


News in brief p12

doi:10.1038/445012a


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Business

When the party's over p13

A drug-trial failure leaves Pfizer in search of a new corporate strategy to deal with the post-blockbuster age, as Meredith Wadman reports.

doi:10.1038/445013a


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News Features

Energy: That's oil, folks... p14

Optimists see oil gushing for decades; pessimists see the planet's energy future already drying up. Alexandra Witze reports.

doi:10.1038/445014a

See also: Editor's summary


Social sciences: Life's a game p18

Manipulating society has traditionally been the preserve of politicians and the gods. Does the current boom in virtual worlds give social scientists and economists an opportunity to join them? Jim Giles investigates.

doi:10.1038/445018a

See also: Editor's summary


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Correspondence

RIKEN aids international structural genomics efforts p21

Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Thomas C. Terwilliger, Seiki Kuramitsu, Dino Moras & Joel L. Sussman

doi:10.1038/445021a


Advances in biology reveal truth about prokaryotes p21

Michael F. Dolan & Lynn Margulis

doi:10.1038/445021b


Pollution analysis flawed by statistical model p21

Suresh Moolgavkar

doi:10.1038/445021c


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Books and Arts

The making of Britain p23

Who are the "amphibious ill-born mob" who gave rise to the British nation?

Clive Gamble

doi:10.1038/445023a


Treasure islands p24

doi:10.1038/445024a


A physics travelogue p24

David Lindley

doi:10.1038/445024b


On the right path p25

Joseph Mazur reviews The Best of All Possible Worlds: Mathematics and Destiny by Ivar Ekeland

doi:10.1038/445025a


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Essay

Concept

Constructive memory: The ghosts of past and future p27

A memory that works by piecing together bits of the past may be better suited to simulating future events than one that is a store of perfect records.

Daniel L. Schacter & Donna Rose Addis

doi:10.1038/445027a

See also: Editor's summary


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News and Views

Planetary science: Titan's lost seas found p29

When the Cassini spacecraft found no methane ocean swathing Saturn's moon Titan, it was a blow to proponents of an Earth-like world. The discovery of northern lakes on Titan gives them reason for cheer.

Christophe Sotin

doi:10.1038/445029a

See also: Editor's summary


Neurobiology: Scent secrets of insects p30

The perception of carbon dioxide provides insects with sensory data on their environment, and informs many insect behaviours. It seems that this sense relies on two dedicated neural receptors.

Rachel I. Wilson

doi:10.1038/445030a

See also: Editor's summary


Bioorganic chemistry: A sweet synthesis p31

Peptides and proteins with sugars attached have many desirable biological properties, but their chemical synthesis is a technical challenge. An ingenious take on an old idea might simplify things considerably.

Linda C. Hsieh-Wilson

doi:10.1038/445031a


50 & 100 Years Ago p32

doi:10.1038/445032a


Developmental biology: This worm is not for turning p33

Molecular investigations of the origin of the dorso-ventral axis in an obscure marine invertebrate illuminate one of the longest-running debates in evolutionary biology — that over the origin of vertebrates.

Henry Gee

doi:10.1038/445033a


Materials science: Alloys go with the grain p34

How do metallic alloys solidify from their original liquid state? A study of the deformation of cooling alloys confirms what had been suspected for some time: solidifying alloys bear exciting similarities to granular materials.

Christophe L. Martin

doi:10.1038/445034a


Evolutionary biology: Oxygen at life's boundaries p35

Proteins are made of amino acids. But amino acids are made of atoms. Exploration of this self-evident principle opens up fresh perspectives on the evolution of biological membranes and multicellular life.

Peggy Baudouin-Cornu & Dominique Thomas

doi:10.1038/nature05521

See also: Editor's summary


Neurobiology: Hit and miss p36

Helen Dell

doi:10.1038/445036a


Cosmology: Ripples of early starlight p37

After all known sources are accounted for, puffy blobs of infrared light persist on deep-field telescope images. Evidence is mounting that these could be the signatures of stars in early 'protogalaxies'.

Craig J. Hogan

doi:10.1038/445037a


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Review

Light in tiny holes p39

C. Genet & T. W. Ebbesen

doi:10.1038/nature05350

See also: Editor's summary


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Articles

Oxygen content of transmembrane proteins over macroevolutionary time scales p47

Claudia Acquisti, Jürgen Kleffe & Sinéad Collins

doi:10.1038/nature05450

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Baudouin-Cornu & Thomas


Crystal structure of a protein phosphatase 2A heterotrimeric holoenzyme p53

Uhn Soo Cho & Wenqing Xu

doi:10.1038/nature05351


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Letters

Pulsar spins from an instability in the accretion shock of supernovae p58

John M. Blondin & Anthony Mezzacappa

doi:10.1038/nature05428

See also: Editor's summary


The lakes of Titan p61

E. R. Stofan, C. Elachi, J. I. Lunine, R. D. Lorenz, B. Stiles, K. L. Mitchell, S. Ostro, L. Soderblom, C. Wood, H. Zebker, S. Wall, M. Janssen, R. Kirk, R. Lopes, F. Paganelli, J. Radebaugh, L. Wye, Y. Anderson, M. Allison, R. Boehmer, P. Callahan, P. Encrenaz, E. Flamini, G. Francescetti, Y. Gim, G. Hamilton, S. Hensley, W. T. K. Johnson, K. Kelleher, D. Muhleman, P. Paillou, G. Picardi, F. Posa, L. Roth, R. Seu, S. Shaffer, S. Vetrella & R. West

doi:10.1038/nature05438

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Sotin


High-speed linear optics quantum computing using active feed-forward p65

Robert Prevedel, Philip Walther, Felix Tiefenbacher, Pascal Böhi, Rainer Kaltenbaek, Thomas Jennewein & Anton Zeilinger

doi:10.1038/nature05346

See also: Editor's summary


Dilatant shear bands in solidifying metals p70

C. M. Gourlay & A. K. Dahle

doi:10.1038/nature05426


Influence of the intertropical convergence zone on the East Asian monsoon p74

Gergana Yancheva, Norbert R. Nowaczyk, Jens Mingram, Peter Dulski, Georg Schettler, Jörg F. W. Negendank, Jiaqi Liu, Daniel M. Sigman, Larry C. Peterson & Gerald H. Haug

doi:10.1038/nature05431

See also: Editor's summary


High-level similarity of dentitions in carnivorans and rodents p78

Alistair R. Evans, Gregory P. Wilson, Mikael Fortelius & Jukka Jernvall

doi:10.1038/nature05433

See also: Editor's summary


Direct estimation of per nucleotide and genomic deleterious mutation rates in Drosophila p82

Cathy Haag-Liautard, Mark Dorris, Xulio Maside, Steven Macaskill, Daniel L. Halligan, Brian Charlesworth & Peter D. Keightley

doi:10.1038/nature05388

See also: Editor's summary


Two chemosensory receptors together mediate carbon dioxide detection in Drosophila p86

Walton D. Jones, Pelin Cayirlioglu, Ilona Grunwald Kadow & Leslie B. Vosshall

doi:10.1038/nature05466

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Wilson


The cellular machinery of Ferroplasma acidiphilum is iron-protein-dominated p91

Manuel Ferrer, Olga V. Golyshina, Ana Beloqui, Peter N. Golyshin & Kenneth N. Timmis

doi:10.1038/nature05362

See also: Editor's summary


A systems biology analysis of the Drosophila phagosome p95

L. M. Stuart, J. Boulais, G. M. Charriere, E. J. Hennessy, S. Brunet, I. Jutras, G. Goyette, C. Rondeau, S. Letarte, H. Huang, P. Ye, F. Morales, C. Kocks, J. S. Bader, M. Desjardins & R. A. B. Ezekowitz

doi:10.1038/nature05380

See also: Editor's summary


Hsp70 regulates erythropoiesis by preventing caspase-3-mediated cleavage of GATA-1 p102

Jean-Antoine Ribeil, Yael Zermati, Julie Vandekerckhove, Severine Cathelin, Joelle Kersual, Michaël Dussiot, Séverine Coulon, Ivan Cruz Moura, Ann Zeuner, Thomas Kirkegaard-Sørensen, Bruno Varet, Eric Solary, Carmen Garrido & Olivier Hermine

doi:10.1038/nature05378


A human colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumour growth in immunodeficient mice p106

Catherine A. O'Brien, Aaron Pollett, Steven Gallinger & John E. Dick

doi:10.1038/nature05372

See also: Editor's summary


Identification and expansion of human colon-cancer-initiating cells p111

Lucia Ricci-Vitiani, Dario G. Lombardi, Emanuela Pilozzi, Mauro Biffoni, Matilde Todaro, Cesare Peschle & Ruggero De Maria

doi:10.1038/nature05384

See also: Editor's summary


A prokaryotic proton-gated ion channel from the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family p116

Nicolas Bocquet, Lia Prado de Carvalho, Jean Cartaud, Jacques Neyton, Chantal Le Poupon, Antoine Taly, Thomas Grutter, Jean-Pierre Changeux & Pierre-Jean Corringer

doi:10.1038/nature05371


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Brief Communications

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Brief Communications Arising

Neurophysiology: Hodgkin and Huxley model — still standing? pE1

David A. McCormick, Yousheng Shu & Yuguo Yu

doi:10.1038/nature05523


Neurophysiology: Hodgkin and Huxley model — still standing? (Reply) pE2

Björn Naundorf, Fred Wolf & Maxim Volgushev

doi:10.1038/nature05534


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Demand for PhDs is uncertain in a changing market. p121

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7123-121a


Career Views

A question of supply and demand p124

Simply having a PhD may not be enough — you need to marry scientific expertise with the right skills.

Michael Alvarez

doi:10.1038/nj7123-124a


The next step

In early 2006, the thought of completing my dissertation and graduating before the end of the year seemed impossible. I was deeply involved in three different projects. Although they were closely related scientifically, I thought it impossible to complete all of them in such a short time. To my surprise, my adviser repeatedly told me that this was the year I would finish and that I should start thinking about what to do next. How could I possibly finish this year? Deciding my next step would be even more difficult.

Andreas Andersson

doi:10.1038/nj0140


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