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Editorials

Calmer waters ahead p789

A conviction, the passage of a bill, and the arrival of some new committee chairmen have markedly improved the immediate outlook for biomedical research in the United States.

doi:10.1038/444789a


An open debate p789

Researchers who work with animals should join the discussion on animal experimentation.

doi:10.1038/444789b

See also: Editor's summary


The elephant in the room p790

A biotech trial that went awry.

doi:10.1038/444790a


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p792

doi:10.1038/444792a


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News

When good cholesterol turns bad p794

Pfizer's heart drug fails clinical trial.

Helen Pearson

doi:10.1038/444794a


Changes at the helm fuel Salk expansion plans p794

California institute aims to build on its success.

Rex Dalton

doi:10.1038/444794b


Agency set up to tackle bioterror p796

Last minute deals in Congress push through biodefence bill and give cash boost to NIH.

Meredith Wadman

doi:10.1038/444796a


Snapshot: 'So far, so good' for shuttle p796

Night-time shuttle launch is a success.

Michael Hopkin

doi:10.1038/444796b


Sidelines p797

doi:10.1038/444797a


Australia lifts ban on cloning p799

Scientists hail move to allow more stem-cell research.

David Cyranoski

doi:10.1038/444799a


Stem-cell techique 'contrary to public order' p799

Patent ruling tightens stem-cell restrictions in Germany.

Alison Abbott

doi:10.1038/444799b


Martian gullies turn tide in hunt for life p800

Signs of liquid water prompt rethink for Mars exploration teams.

Katharine Sanderson

doi:10.1038/444800a


A vision of life after Blair p801

Pre-budget report offers taste of Brown's premiership.

Jim Giles

doi:10.1038/444801a


News in brief p802

doi:10.1038/444802a


Correction p803

doi:10.1038/444803a


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Business

Aerial ambition p804

A spin-off from a UK university has established a solid niche as a leading supplier of microsatellites. But taking the company to the next level is a challenge. Geoff Brumfiel reports.

doi:10.1038/444804a


In brief p805

doi:10.1038/444805a


Market watch p805

Colin Macilwain

doi:10.1038/444805b


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News Features

Animal research: A matter of life and death p807

doi:10.1038/444807a

See also: Editor's summary


Animal research: Grey Matters p808

Many scientists have nuanced views on animal research. But they are rarely heard, says Emma Marris.

doi:10.1038/444808a


Animal research: caught in the middle p811

Researchers aren't the only ones who concern themselves with animal welfare in the lab. Vets are asked regularly to monitor and care for these animals — a role that can call for some difficult decisions. Kerri Smith talks to Sarah Wolfensohn, head of veterinary services at the University of Oxford, UK, about the challenges and conflicts presented by caring for experimental animals.

doi:10.1038/444811a


Animal Research: Primates in the frame p812

Primate researchers have long faced violent protests over their work. But in some countries, regulatory obstacles are taking a greater toll. David Cyranoski meets European scientists who feel that bureaucratic pressures are closing their labs.

doi:10.1038/444812a


Animal research: Mighty mouse p814

Coordination and integration of the results of animal research are an ever-increasing challenge. Jane Qiu finds out what happens when big biology meets a small rodent.

doi:10.1038/444814a


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Correspondence

Cultural differences reduce Japanese researchers' visibility on the Web p817

Masao Ito and Torsten Wiesel

doi:10.1038/444817a


Real-space solution to the problem of full disclosure p817

Bernhard Rupp

doi:10.1038/444817b


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Books and Arts

Top of the pops p819

What's special about the best popular science books?

Jon Turney

doi:10.1038/444819a


Swoop and swerve p820

H. K. Moffatt reviews Spinning Flight: Dynamics of Frisbees, Boomerangs, Samaras and Skipping Stones by Ralph D. Lorenz

doi:10.1038/444820a


Saving time p821

Lisa Jardine reviews Time Restored: The Harrison Timekeepers and R. T. Gould, the Man Who Knew (Almost) Everything by Jonathan Betts

doi:10.1038/444821a


2006 wrapped up p821

Mary Purton

doi:10.1038/444821b


Christmas Reading p822

A selection of books on the lighter side of science for the holiday period.

doi:10.1038/444822a


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News and Views

Optics: Momentum in an uncertain light p823

How much momentum does light transfer to a material through which it passes? This is a surprisingly opaque matter, contested for almost a century, that is still the object of theory and experimentation.

Ulf Leonhardt

doi:10.1038/444823a


Malaria: A protective paradox p824

The infectious form of the malaria parasite has thousands of proteins, making it tough to develop a vaccine for it. Narrowing down which proteins cause protective immune responses may help resolve the problem.

Stephen L. Hoffman

doi:10.1038/nature05409


50 & 100 Years Ago p825

doi:10.1038/444825a


Leukaemia: Niche retreats for stem cells p827

Leukaemic cells and normal blood-producing cells relate differently to their surroundings. This concept has now been extended to leukaemic stem cells, suggesting a fresh approach to therapy.

David A. Williams and Jose A. Cancelas

doi:10.1038/444827a


Semiconductor electronics: Organic crystals at large p828

Fabricating large-scale semiconducting surfaces for the flexible screens of the future is a bothersome business. A simple technique for growing single-crystal organic semiconductors brings new vision to the field.

Paul Heremans

doi:10.1038/444828a

See also: Editor's summary


Conservation biology: Unkind cuts for incense p829

Peter D. Moore

doi:10.1038/444829a


Neurobiology: A channel sets the gain on pain p831

Nerve impulses that convey pain signals to the brain are produced by sodium channels in the neuronal membrane. Studies on people who are unable to feel pain identify one specific sodium channel as essential to the process.

Stephen G. Waxman

doi:10.1038/444831a

See also: Editor's summary


Condensed-matter physics: Up the magnetic pressure p832

Observations of a phenomenon known as the magnetic fountain effect in superfluid helium are not just beautiful experiments, but could also supply a tool for studying many other exotic magnetic phenomena.

Shaun Fisher and George Pickett

doi:10.1038/444832a


Diabetes: Kicking off the insulin cascade p833

Inhibition of the insulin-signalling pathway leads to insulin resistance, an early step in the development of type 2 diabetes. A novel family of protein activators seems to act near the pathway's inception.

Catherine Jackson

doi:10.1038/444833a

See also: Editor's summary


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Brief Communications

A microworld in Triassic amber p835

Amber as old as the first dinosaurs captured the diversity of microbial life 220 million years ago.

Alexander R. Schmidt, Eugenio Ragazzi, Olimpia Coppellotti and Guido Roghi

doi:10.1038/444835a

See also: Editor's summary


Molecular Epidemiology: HIV-1 and HCV sequences from Libyan outbreak p836

Tulio de Oliveira, Oliver G. Pybus, Andrew Rambaut, Marco Salemi, Sharon Cassol, Massimo Ciccozzi, Giovanni Rezza, Guido Castelli Gattinara, Roberta D'Arrigo, Massimo Amicosante, Luc Perrin, Vittorio Colizzi, Carlo Federico Perno and Benghazi Study Group

doi:10.1038/444836a


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Brief Communications Arising

Evolutionary genetics: Evolution of mate choice in the wild pE16

Erik Postma, Simon C. Griffith and Robert Brooks

doi:10.1038/nature05501


Evolutionary genetics: Evolution of mate choice in the wild (Reply) pE16

Anna Qvarnström, Jon E. Brommer and Lars Gustafsson

doi:10.1038/nature05502


Geochemistry: Biosignatures and abiotic constraints on early life pE18

Barbara Sherwood Lollar and Thomas M. McCollom

doi:10.1038/nature05499


Geochemistry: Biosignatures and abiotic constraints on early life (Reply) pE18

Yuichiro Ueno, Keita Yamada, Naohiro Yoshida, Shigenori Maruyama and Yukio Isozaki

doi:10.1038/nature05500


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Insight: Obesity and Diabetes

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Insight: Obesity and Diabetes

Obesity and diabetes p839

Deepa Nath, Marie-Thérèse Heemels and Lesley Anson

doi:10.1038/444839a


Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes p840

Steven E. Kahn, Rebecca L. Hull and Kristina M. Utzschneider

doi:10.1038/nature05482


Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis p847

Evan D. Rosen and Bruce M. Spiegelman

doi:10.1038/nature05483


Gut hormones and the regulation of energy homeostasis p854

Kevin G. Murphy and Stephen R. Bloom

doi:10.1038/nature05484


Inflammation and metabolic disorders p860

Gökhan S. Hotamisligil

doi:10.1038/nature05485


Sirtuins as potential targets for metabolic syndrome p868

Leonard Guarente

doi:10.1038/nature05486


Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease p875

Luc F. Van Gaal, Ilse L. Mertens and Christophe E. De Block

doi:10.1038/nature05487


Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome p881

Jean-Pierre Després and Isabelle Lemieux

doi:10.1038/nature05488



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Articles

A Mesozoic gliding mammal from northeastern China p889

Jin Meng, Yaoming Hu, Yuanqing Wang, Xiaolin Wang and Chuankui Li

doi:10.1038/nature05234

See also: Editor's summary


An SCN9A channelopathy causes congenital inability to experience pain p894

James J. Cox, Frank Reimann, Adeline K. Nicholas, Gemma Thornton, Emma Roberts, Kelly Springell, Gulshan Karbani, Hussain Jafri, Jovaria Mannan, Yasmin Raashid, Lihadh Al-Gazali, Henan Hamamy, Enza Maria Valente, Shaun Gorman, Richard Williams, Duncan P. McHale, John N. Wood, Fiona M. Gribble and C. Geoffrey Woods

doi:10.1038/nature05413

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Waxman


Regulation of the bacterial cell cycle by an integrated genetic circuit p899

Emanuele G. Biondi, Sarah J. Reisinger, Jeffrey M. Skerker, Muhammad Arif, Barrett S. Perchuk, Kathleen R. Ryan and Michael T. Laub

doi:10.1038/nature05321

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

MARSIS radar sounder evidence of buried basins in the northern lowlands of Mars p905

Thomas R. Watters, Carl J. Leuschen, Jeffrey J. Plaut, Giovanni Picardi, Ali Safaeinili, Stephen M. Clifford, William M. Farrell, Anton B. Ivanov, Roger J. Phillips and Ellen R. Stofan

doi:10.1038/nature05356

See also: Editor's summary


Minority spin condensate in the spin-polarized superfluid 3He A1 phase p909

A. Yamaguchi, S. Kobayashi, H. Ishimoto and H. Kojima

doi:10.1038/nature05391

See also: News and Views by Fisher & Pickett


Patterning organic single-crystal transistor arrays p913

Alejandro L. Briseno, Stefan C. B. Mannsfeld, Mang M. Ling, Shuhong Liu, Ricky J. Tseng, Colin Reese, Mark E. Roberts, Yang Yang, Fred Wudl and Zhenan Bao

doi:10.1038/nature05427

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Heremans


Negligible glacial–interglacial variation in continental chemical weathering rates p918

Gavin L. Foster and Derek Vance

doi:10.1038/nature05365


Slip on 'weak' faults by the rotation of regional stress in the fracture damage zone p922

D. R. Faulkner, T. M. Mitchell, D. Healy and M. J. Heap

doi:10.1038/nature05353

See also: Editor's summary


Dynamical evolution of ecosystems p926

Sandro Azaele, Simone Pigolotti, Jayanth R. Banavar and Amos Maritan

doi:10.1038/nature05320

See also: Editor's summary


Robustness–epistasis link shapes the fitness landscape of a randomly drifting protein p929

Shimon Bershtein, Michal Segal, Roy Bekerman, Nobuhiko Tokuriki and Dan S. Tawfik

doi:10.1038/nature05385


Characterization of a carbohydrate transporter from symbiotic glomeromycotan fungi p933

Arthur Schüs zligler, Holger Martin, David Cohen, Michael Fitz and Daniel Wipf

doi:10.1038/nature05364

See also: Editor's summary


The circumsporozoite protein is an immunodominant protective antigen in irradiated sporozoites p937

Kota Arun Kumar, Gen-ichiro Sano, Silvia Boscardin, Ruth S. Nussenzweig, Michel C. Nussenzweig, Fidel Zavala and Victor Nussenzweig

doi:10.1038/nature05361

See also: News and Views by Hoffman


Inhibition of cytohesins by SecinH3 leads to hepatic insulin resistance p941

Markus Hafner, Anton Schmitz, Imke Grüne, Seergazhi G. Srivatsan, Bianca Paul, Waldemar Kolanus, Thomas Quast, Elisabeth Kremmer, Inga Bauer and Michael Famulok

doi:10.1038/nature05415

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Jackson


The cytohesin Steppke is essential for insulin signalling in Drosophila p945

Bernhard Fuss, Thomas Becker, Ingo Zinke and Michael Hoch

doi:10.1038/nature05412

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Jackson


Long-lasting arrest of murine polycystic kidney disease with CDK inhibitor roscovitine p949

Nikolay O. Bukanov, Laurie A. Smith, Katherine W. Klinger, Steven R. Ledbetter and Oxana Ibraghimov-Beskrovnaya

doi:10.1038/nature05348

See also: Editor's summary


Polyadenylation factor CPSF-73 is the pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing endonuclease p953

Corey R. Mandel, Syuzo Kaneko, Hailong Zhang, Damara Gebauer, Vasupradha Vethantham, James L. Manley and Liang Tong

doi:10.1038/nature05363


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Technology Features

Protein arrays: Growing pains p959

Protein microarrays are coming of age, and the development of specialized technologies is extending their high-throughput capabilities. Michael Eisenstein reports.

Michael Eisenstein

doi:10.1038/444959a


Protein arrays: Losing the label p959

doi:10.1038/444959b


Protein arrays: An apt solution? p960

doi:10.1038/444960a


Protein arrays: (Almost) no assembly required p961

doi:10.1038/444961a


Protein arrays: Table of suppliers p963

doi:10.1038/444963a


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Graduate journal keepers look back on a year of lessons learned — in and out of the lab. p965

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7121-965a


Special Report

Model Mentors p966

Five scientists nominated by their peers have created nurturing research environments and fostered fields and careers far beyond their labs. Carina Dennis and Janet Wright give credit where it's long overdue.

Carina Dennis

doi:10.1038/nj7121-966a


Career View

How to get a PhD

Evaluating PhD progress both highlights accomplishments and suggests daunting challenges ahead.

Mhairi Dupré

doi:10.1038/nj0137


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Futures

The Godmother Protocols p970

More reliable than kissing.

Heather M. Whitney

doi:10.1038/444970a


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