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Editorials

Enough warheads, already p653

Its official: the reliability of existing US nuclear warheads makes their replacement unnecessary.

doi:10.1038/444653a

See also: Editor's summary


A fair share p653

The concept of sharing primary data is generating unnecessary angst in the psychology community.

doi:10.1038/444653b


Green shoots of growth p654

Energy from biomass is an idea whose time has returned.

doi:10.1038/444654a


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p656

doi:10.1038/444656a


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News

Journal reveals plans to fight fraud p658

Science to select papers for extra-secure review process.

Meredith Wadman

doi:10.1038/444658a


Molecular HIV evidence backs accused medics p658

DNA analysis indicates health workers were not to blame for infections.

Declan Butler

doi:10.1038/444658b


US backs revamp of nuclear warheads p660

Weapons stockpile set for 'unnecessary' upgrade.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi:10.1038/444660a


Bush faces rough ride over climate change p660

Courts and Congress poised to shape environment policy.

Emma Marris

doi:10.1038/444660b


Sidelines p661

doi:10.1038/444661a


South Africa takes steps to tackle HIV p663

Government finally faces up to pandemic.

Michael Cherry

doi:10.1038/444663a


Oil firms back AIDS project in the Niger delta p663

Island community to be focus of anti-HIV initiative.

Colin Macilwain

doi:10.1038/444663b


Purdue attacked over fusion inquiry p664

Physicists angry at apparent inertia in misconduct investigation.

Eugenie Samuel Reich

doi:10.1038/444664a


Actions speak louder than images p664

Scientists warn against using brain scans for legal decisions.

Apoorva Mandavilli

doi:10.1038/444664b


News in brief p667

doi:10.1038/444667a


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Business Features

Introduction: Biofuelling the future p669

doi:10.1038/444669a

See also: Editor's summary


Sugar cane and ethanol: Drink the best and drive the rest p670

Brazil's sugar-cane ethanol industry is the world's best and able to get better, says Emma Marris.

Emma Marris

doi:10.1038/444670a


US biofuels: A field in ferment p673

To move US biofuels beyond subsidized corn will be a challenge, reports Katharine Sanderson.

Katharine Sanderson

doi:10.1038/444673a


Liquid fuel synthesis: Making it up as you go along p677

Chemists can make liquid fuel from biomass — or from coal. Heidi Ledford weighs up the pros and cons.

Heidi Ledford

doi:10.1038/444677a


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Correspondence

A timely wake-up call as anti-evolutionists publicize their views p679

U. Kutschera

doi:10.1038/444679a


Creationist views have no basis in science p679

Gabriela Lorenc-Plucin acuteska

doi:10.1038/444679b


Creationists weaken society's trust in scientists p679

Joanna Rutkowska

doi:10.1038/444679c


Claim of bias against critics is refuted by publication p679

Gerdien de Jong and Gert Korthof

doi:10.1038/444679d


Pseudoscience should not be published in Nature p679

Uwe Balthasar and Susannah Maidment

doi:10.1038/444679e


There is no new evidence that undermines evolution p680

Brian Charlesworth

doi:10.1038/444680a


Walking with dinosaurs? Not in the real world p680

Gary S. Hurd

doi:10.1038/444680b


Creationists pose political, not scientific, threat p680

Jerzy Banbura

doi:10.1038/444680c


How the word 'hominid' evolved to include hominin p680

Simon Underdown

doi:10.1038/444680d


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Commentary

The right tools can save lives p681

Effective diagnosis, paired with treatment, for developing-world diseases can have far-reaching impacts, says the Global Health Diagnostics Forum.

doi:10.1038/444681a

See also: Editor's summary


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Books and Arts

One good deed p683

Can a simple equation explain the development of altruism?

Oliver Curry reviews The Altruism Equation: Seven Scientists Search for the Origins of Goodness by Lee Alan Dugatkin

doi:10.1038/444683a


Film: The quest for immortality p684

Emma Marris reviews The Fountain directed by Darren Aronofsky

doi:10.1038/444684a


Bugs with bugs p684

Mark L. Winston reviews Big Fleas Have Little Fleas: How Discoveries of Invertebrate Diseases are Advancing Modern Science by Elizabeth W. Davidson

doi:10.1038/444684b


In retrospect: The birth of contraception p685

Michel Raymond reviews Contraception and Abortion from the Ancient World to the Renaissance by John M. Riddle

doi:10.1038/444685a

See also: Editor's summary


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News and Views

Cancer: Stem cells and brain tumours p687

Stem cells are increasingly implicated in maintaining certain cancers. Studies of an intractable type of brain tumour provide hints as to why such cells may underlie the tumours' resistance to therapy.

Peter B. Dirks

doi:10.1038/444687a


Plasma physics: On the node of a wave p688

A compact electron accelerator can be made by the cunning use of laser pulses to let electrons 'surf' on a plasma wave. The problem has been controlling exactly how much the electrons are accelerated.

Tom Katsouleas

doi:10.1038/444688a

See also: Editor's summary


Evolutionary biology: Caught right-handed p689

Are two penises better than one? Not so, implies a study of doubly endowed earwigs. An ancestral behavioural preference for the right penis might have facilitated the loss of the left in species that arose later.

A. Richard Palmer

doi:10.1038/444689a


50 & 100 Years Ago p692

doi:10.1038/444692a


Chemical biology: Renewing embryonic stem cells p692

Embryonic stem cells have great potential in medicine, but the current methods used to grow them prevent their therapeutic use. A dual-action compound has been discovered that may help solve this problem.

Reka R. Letso and Brent R. Stockwell

doi:10.1038/444692b


Condensed-matter physics: Defects and perfect flows p693

The discovery that parts of a solid helium crystal could flow through other parts without friction ignited physicists' interest. Independent experiments confirm this unusual superflow, but its origin remains mysterious.

Henry R. Glyde

doi:10.1038/444693a


Oceanography: Plankton in a warmer world p695

Satellite data show that phytoplankton biomass and growth generally decline as the oceans' surface waters warm up. Is this trend, seen over the past decade, a harbinger of the future for marine ecosystems?

Scott C. Doney

doi:10.1038/444695a

See also: Editor's summary


Ion channels: A paddle in oil p697

How do voltage-gated ion channels in cell membranes open? The latest work suggests that the process depends on having the correct lipid molecules in the membrane, with phosphate groups being mandatory.

Anthony G. Lee

doi:10.1038/nature05408


Chemistry: Metals line up for DNA p698

The versatile DNA molecule has found many applications beyond biology. In its latest role, it serves as a self-assembling scaffold to arrange different metal ions in a row, like pearls on a string.

Jens Müller

doi:10.1038/444698a


Astrophysics: Unity among black holes p699

Black holes box at two weights: active galactic nuclei are in the super-heavyweight class, whereas galactic black holes are relative featherweights. But does the same physics pack both objects' punches? It seems that it does.

Jörn Wilms

doi:10.1038/444699a

See also: Editor's summary


Correction p699

doi:10.1038/444699b


Obituary: Reinhart Heinrich (1946–2006) p700

Pioneer in systems biology.

Marc W. Kirschner

doi:10.1038/444700a


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Brief Communications

Nectar bat stows huge tongue in its rib cage p701

The extreme length of this bat's tongue might have coevolved with the long flowers it pollinates.

Nathan Muchhala

doi:10.1038/444701a


Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field p702

Richard A. Holland, Kasper Thorup, Maarten J. Vonhof, William W. Cochran and Martin Wikelski

doi:10.1038/444702a

See also: Editor's summary


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Brief Communications Arising

Evolutionary Biology: Evidence for sympatric speciation? pE12

U. K. Schliewen, T. D. Kocher, K. R. McKaye, O. Seehausen and D. Tautz

doi:10.1038/nature05419


Evolutionary Biology: Evidence for sympatric speciation? (Reply) pE13

Marta Barluenga, Kai N. Stölting, Walter Salzburger, Moritz Muschick and Axel Meyer

doi:10.1038/nature05420


Continental Runoff: A quality-controlled global runoff data set pE14

Murray C. Peel and Thomas A. McMahon

doi:10.1038/nature05480


Continental Runoff: A quality-controlled global runoff data set (Reply) pE14

N. Gedney, P. M. Cox, R. A. Betts, O. Boucher, C. Huntingford and P. A. Stott

doi:10.1038/nature05481


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Progress

The critical role of disks in the formation of high-mass stars p703

Riccardo Cesaroni, Daniele Galli, Giuseppe Lodato, Malcolm Walmsley and Qizhou Zhang

doi:10.1038/nature05344

See also: Editor's summary


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Review

Electrical activity in early neuronal development p707

Nicholas C. Spitzer

doi:10.1038/nature05300

See also: Editor's summary


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Articles

Insights into the dynamics of mantle plumes from uranium-series geochemistry p713

Bernard Bourdon, Neil M. Ribe, Andreas Stracke, Alberto E. Saal and Simon P. Turner

doi:10.1038/nature05341

See also: Editor's summary


The efficient interaction of indirect reciprocity and costly punishment p718

Bettina Rockenbach and Manfred Milinski

doi:10.1038/nature05229

See also: Editor's summary


Thymic selection threshold defined by compartmentalization of Ras/MAPK signalling p724

Mark A. Daniels, Emma Teixeiro, Jason Gill, Barbara Hausmann, Dominique Roubaty, Kaisa Holmberg, Guy Werlen, Georg A. Holländer, Nicholas R. J. Gascoigne and Ed Palmer

doi:10.1038/nature05269


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Letters

Active galactic nuclei as scaled-up Galactic black holes p730

I. M. McHardy, E. Koerding, C. Knigge, P. Uttley and R. P. Fender

doi:10.1038/nature05389

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Wilms


Free fermion antibunching in a degenerate atomic Fermi gas released from an optical lattice p733

T. Rom, Th. Best, D. van Oosten, U. Schneider, S. Fölling, B. Paredes and I. Bloch

doi:10.1038/nature05319


Controlled injection and acceleration of electrons in plasma wakefields by colliding laser pulses p737

J. Faure, C. Rechatin, A. Norlin, A. Lifschitz, Y. Glinec and V. Malka

doi:10.1038/nature05393

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Katsouleas


Thermal radiation scanning tunnelling microscopy p740

Yannick De Wilde, Florian Formanek, Rémi Carminati, Boris Gralak, Paul-Arthur Lemoine, Karl Joulain, Jean-Philippe Mulet, Yong Chen and Jean-Jacques Greffet

doi:10.1038/nature05265

See also: Editor's summary


Oxidation of the Ediacaran Ocean p744

D. A. Fike, J. P. Grotzinger, L. M. Pratt and R. E. Summons

doi:10.1038/nature05345

See also: Editor's summary


How Neanderthal molar teeth grew p748

Roberto Macchiarelli, Luca Bondioli, André Debénath, Arnaud Mazurier, Jean-François Tournepiche, Wendy Birch and M. Christopher Dean

doi:10.1038/nature05314

See also: Editor's summary


Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity p752

Michael J. Behrenfeld, Robert T. O'Malley, David A. Siegel, Charles R. McClain, Jorge L. Sarmiento, Gene C. Feldman, Allen J. Milligan, Paul G. Falkowski, Ricardo M. Letelier and Emmanuel S. Boss

doi:10.1038/nature05317

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Doney


Glioma stem cells promote radioresistance by preferential activation of the DNA damage response p756

Shideng Bao, Qiulian Wu, Roger E. McLendon, Yueling Hao, Qing Shi, Anita B. Hjelmeland, Mark W. Dewhirst, Darell D. Bigner and Jeremy N. Rich

doi:10.1038/nature05236

See also: News and Views by Dirks


Bone morphogenetic proteins inhibit the tumorigenic potential of human brain tumour-initiating cells p761

S. G. M. Piccirillo, B. A. Reynolds, N. Zanetti, G. Lamorte, E. Binda, G. Broggi, H. Brem, A. Olivi, F. Dimeco and A. L. Vescovi

doi:10.1038/nature05349

See also: News and Views by Dirks


A bacterial dynamin-like protein p766

Harry H. Low and Jan Löwe

doi:10.1038/nature05312


Klotho converts canonical FGF receptor into a specific receptor for FGF23 p770

Itaru Urakawa, Yuji Yamazaki, Takashi Shimada, Kousuke Iijima, Hisashi Hasegawa, Katsuya Okawa, Toshiro Fujita, Seiji Fukumoto and Takeyoshi Yamashita

doi:10.1038/nature05315

See also: Editor's summary


Phospholipids and the origin of cationic gating charges in voltage sensors p775

Daniel Schmidt, Qiu-Xing Jiang and Roderick MacKinnon

doi:10.1038/nature05416

See also: News and Views by Lee


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Corrigenda

Smad4 signalling in T cells is required for suppression of gastrointestinal cancer p780

Byung-Gyu Kim, Cuiling Li, Wenhui Qiao, Mizuko Mamura, Barbara Kasprzak, Miriam Anver, Lawrence Wolfraim, Suntaek Hong, Elizabeth Mushinski, Michael Potter, Seong-Jin Kim, Xin-Yuan Fu, Chuxia Deng and John J. Letterio

doi:10.1038/nature05421


Definitive fossil evidence for the extant avian radiation in the Cretaceous p780

Julia A. Clarke, Claudia P. Tambussi, Jorge I. Noriega, Gregory M. Erickson and Richard A. Ketcham

doi:10.1038/nature05424


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Naturejobs

Prospect

How to ask yourself questions about major career decisions. p781

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7120-781a


Postdocs and Students

Should I stay or should I go? p782

Gut check time: should you stay in academia, on the bench or even quit science?

Kendall Powell

doi:10.1038/nj7120-782a


Highlights

Special Feature: NIH

doi:10.1038/nj0135


Highlight: Germany's Excellence Initiative

doi:10.1038/nj0136


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Futures

Awakening the genius within p788

Revolution in the head.

Daniel Gregory

doi:10.1038/444788a


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