Table of contents

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Europe's arrested development p883

Encouraging statistics on industrial R&D don't tell the whole story.


Rich in plutonium p883

The US nuclear-weapons complex is too large — and is likely to remain so.


Plan bee p884

Another day, another genome.


See also: Editor's summary


Research Highlights

Research highlights p886




Special report

'A shocking lack of evidence' p888

The trial in Libya of six medics accused of infecting children with HIV ends next week. With the defendants facing possible execution, Declan Butler asked AIDS experts to assess the case against them.


Sidelines p890


Sceptics detect flaws in US nuclear monitor plan p890

Can North Korea's nuclear advances be contained?

Geoff Brumfiel


Polish scientists fight creationism p890

Deputy education minister calls evolution a 'lie'.

Almut Graebsch


From hive minds to humans p893

Honeybee genome offers insight into social behaviour.

Erika Check


See also: Editor's summary

Grants fall victim to NIH success p894

Increase in applications sees funding rate plummet.

Jim Giles & Meredith Wadman


Funding agencies toughen stance on open access p894

Pressure grows for scientists to make research free for all.

Heidi Ledford


Snapshot: But is it natural? p895

Doors open on exhibition of animal homosexuality.

Alison Abbott


News in brief p896




Capital gains p897

London is seeking to compete with the Nasdaq as the preferred global venue for science-based companies trying to raise cash. Andrea Chipman reports.



News Features

Whitefly infestations: The Christmas Invasion p898

The cheerful leaves of the poinsettia could be hiding an unwelcome visitor this festive season. Rex Dalton goes in search of the whitefly, a potentially devastating pest.


Cell biology: Power games p901

There's a fight going on inside all our cells for each breath of air. Nick Lane sheds therapeutic light on the implications for cancer and degenerative diseases.


Marine natural products: Drugs from the deep p904

Is the cure for cancer lurking beneath the waves? Emma Marris plunges into the chemistry of marine natural products.




RNAi Nobel ignores vital groundwork on plants p906

Marc Bots, Spencer Maughan & Jeroen Nieuwland


Iran seeks nuclear power to replace reliance on oil p906

Kamran B. Lankarani


Iran: productivity is not simple to evaluate p906

Hamid Reza Maei


Iran: let's keep politics in the realm of rationality p906

Ludovico Cademartiri




Preparing for the worst p907

An international data bank of nuclear explosives is needed to determine the source of nuclear materials following an explosion, argue Michael May, Jay Davis and Raymond Jeanloz.


See also: Editor's summary


Autumn Books

The Chomsky of morality? p909

A view of morality as the product of an innate mental faculty — rather like language.

Paul Bloom & Izzat Jarudi review Moral Minds: How Nature Designed Our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong by Marc D. Hauser


See also: Editor's summary

Evidence for evolution p910

Brian Charlesworth reviews The Making of the Fittest: DNA and the Ultimate Forensic Record of Evolution by Sean B. Carroll


See also: Editor's summary

Battlefield between the ears p911

Charles Jennings reviews Mind Wars: Brain Research and National Defense by Jonathan D. Moreno


See also: Editor's summary

Experimental theatre p913

Stuart Firestein reviews Science on Stage: From Doctor Faustus to Copenhagen by Kirsten Shepherd-Barr


See also: Editor's summary

Sermons and straw men p914

Lawrence M. Krauss reviews The God Delusion by Richard Dawkins


See also: Editor's summary

The hero of Gombe p915

W. C. McGrew reviews Jane Goodall: The Woman Who Redefined Man by Dale Peterson


See also: Editor's summary

The theorist p917

Horace Freeland Judson reviews Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code by Matt Ridley


See also: Editor's summary

Coping with uncertainty p918

Gianpietro Malescio reviews From Cosmos to Chaos: The Science of Unpredictability by Peter Coles


See also: Editor's summary


News and Views

Genomics: How to make a social insect p919

The profound biological changes that lofted the honeybee to an advanced state of social organization are reflected in its newly sequenced genome. The species can now be studied all the way from molecule to colony.

Edward O. Wilson


See also: Editor's summary

Palaeoceanography: In hot water p920

There has long been scepticism about the geochemical evidence that the ancient ocean was markedly warm. A fresh approach bolsters the case for an ocean that, in the distant past, was indeed quite hot.

Christina L. De La Rocha


See also: Editor's summary

Palaeontology: Modern look for ancient lamprey p921

It was once thought that lampreys evolved from armoured jawless vertebrates. But a recently discovered lamprey fossil dates from the twilight age of their supposed ancestors, and looks surprisingly modern.

Philippe Janvier


See also: Editor's summary

50 & 100 years ago p923


Electromagnetism: Like a speeding watch p924

A rotation in light's electric-field vector can alter the light's frequency. This rotational equivalent of the Doppler effect has proved surprisingly elusive, but has now been spotted in the laboratory.

Miles Padgett


Genomics: Blueprints for partnerships p925

Gutless marine worms harness the resources of a team of bacteria in lieu of a digestive or excretory system. A genome-sequence analysis now defines the roles of the microbes.

David A. Stahl & Seana K. Davidson


See also: Editor's summary

Geophysics: Protons lead the charge p927

Is the anomalously high electrical conductivity seen in part of Earth's mantle caused by protons derived from hydrous defects in the mineral olivine? Two groups investigate this possibility — and draw different conclusions.

Greg Hirth


See also: Editor's summary

Developmental biology: Red-eye redirected p928

Barbara Marte


See also: Editor's summary

Correction p928



Brief Communications

Palaeontology: Skull morphology of giant terror birds p929

These monstrous birds were probably more agile and less portly than previously thought.

Luis M. Chiappe & Sara Bertelli


See also: Editor's summary


Brief Communications Arising

Evolutionary biology: Sympatric plant speciation in islands? pE12

Tod F. Stuessy


Evolutionary biology: Sympatric plant speciation in islands? (Reply) pE12

Vincent Savolainen, Christian Lexer, Marie-Charlotte Anstett, Ian Hutton, J. J. Clarkson, M. V. Norup, M. P. Powell, D. Springate, N. Salamin & William J. Baker




Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera p931

The Honeybee Genome Sequencing ConsortiumOverall project leadership:, George M. Weinstock, Gene E. Robinson, Principal investigators:, Richard A. Gibbs, George M. Weinstock, Community coordination:, George M. Weinstock, leader, Gene E. Robinson, leader, Kim C. Worley, leader, Jay D. Evans, Ryszard Maleszka, Hugh M. Robertson, Daniel B. Weaver, Annotation section leaders:, Martin Beye, Peer Bork, Christine G. Elsik, Jay D. Evans, Klaus Hartfelder, Greg J. Hunt, Hugh M. Robertson, Gene E. Robinson, Ryszard Maleszka, George M. Weinstock, Kim C. Worley, Evgeny M. Zdobnov, Caste development and reproduction:, Klaus Hartfelder, leader, Gro V. Amdam, Mrcia M. G. Bitondi, Anita M. Collins, Alexandre S. Cristino, Jay D. Evans, H. Michael, G. Lattorff, Carlos H. Lobo, Robin F. A. Moritz, Francis M. F. Nunes, Robert E. Page, Jr, Zil L. P. Simões, Diana Wheeler, EST sequencing:, Piero Carninci, leader, Shiro Fukuda, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Chikatoshi Kai, Jun Kawai, Naoko Sakazume, Daisuke Sasaki, Michihira Tagami, Brain and behaviour:, Ryszard Maleszka, leader, Gro V. Amdam, Stefan Albert, Geert Baggerman, Kyle T. Beggs, Guy Bloch, Giuseppe Cazzamali, Mira Cohen, Mark David Drapeau, Dorothea Eisenhardt, Christine Emore, Michael A. Ewing, Susan E. Fahrbach, Sylvain Forêt, Cornelis J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen, Frank Hauser, Amanda B. Hummon, Greg J. Hunt, Jurgen Huybrechts, Andrew K. Jones, Tatsuhiko Kadowaki, Noam Kaplan, Robert Kucharski, Gérard Leboulle, Michal Linial, J. Troy Littleton, Alison R. Mercer, Robert E. Page, Jr, Hugh M. Robertson, Gene E. Robinson, Timothy A. Richmond, Sandra L. RodriguezZas, Elad B. Rubin, David B. Sattelle, David Schlipalius, Liliane Schoofs, Yair Shemesh, Jonathan V. Sweedler, Rodrigo Velarde, Peter Verleyen, Evy Vierstraete, Michael R. Williamson, Development and metabolism:, Martin Beye, leader, Seth A. Ament, Susan J. Brown, Miguel Corona, Peter K. Dearden, W. Augustine Dunn, Michelle M. Elekonich, Christine G. Elsik, Sylvain Forêt, Tomoko Fujiyuki, Irene Gattermeier, Tanja Gempe, Martin Hasselmann, Tatsuhiko Kadowaki, Eriko Kage, Azusa Kamikouchi, Takeo Kubo, Robert Kucharski, Takekazu Kunieda, Marcé Lorenzen, Ryszard Maleszka, Natalia V. Milshina, Mizue Morioka, Kazuaki Ohashi, Ross Overbeek, Robert E. Page, Jr, Hugh M. Robertson, Gene E. Robinson, Christian A. Ross, Morten Schioett, Teresa Shippy, Hideaki Takeuchi, Amy L. Toth, Judith H. Willis, Megan J. Wilson, Comparative and evolutionary analysis:, Hugh M. Robertson, leader, Evgeny M. Zdobnov, leader, Peer Bork, Christine G. Elsik, Karl H. J. Gordon, Ivica Letunic, Funding agency management:, Kevin Hackett, Jane Peterson, Adam Felsenfeld, Mark Guyer, Physical and genetic mapping:, Michel Solignac, leader, Richa Agarwala, Jean Marie Cornuet, Christine G. Elsik, Christine Emore, Greg J. Hunt, Monique Monnerot, Florence Mougel, Justin T. Reese, David Schlipalius, Dominique Vautrin, Daniel B. Weaver, Ribosomal RNA genes and related retrotransposable elements:, Joseph J. Gillespie, leader, Jamie J. Cannone, Robin R. Gutell, J. Spencer Johnston, Gene prediction and consensus gene set:, Christine G. Elsik, leader, Giuseppe Cazzamali, Michael B. Eisen, Cornelis J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen, Frank Hauser, Amanda B. Hummon, Venky N. Iyer, Vivek Iyer, Peter Kosarev, Aaron J. Mackey, Ryszard Maleszka, Justin T. Reese, Timothy A. Richmond, Hugh M. Robertson, Victor Solovyev, Alexandre Souvorov, Jonathan V. Sweedler, George M. Weinstock, Michael R. Williamson, Evgeny M. Zdobnov, Honeybee disease and immunity:, Jay D. Evans, leader, Katherine A. Aronstein, Katarina Bilikova, Yan Ping Chen, Andrew G. Clark, Laura I. Decanini, William M. Gelbart, Charles Hetru, Dan Hultmark, Jean-Luc Imler, Haobo Jiang, Michael Kanost, Kiyoshi Kimura, Brian P. Lazzaro, Dawn L. Lopez, Jozef Simuth, Graham J. Thompson, Zhen Zou, BAC/fosmid library construction and analysis:, Pieter De Jong, leader, Erica Sodergren, leader, Miklós Csu double acuterös, Aleksandar Milosavljevic, J. Spencer Johnston, Kazutoyo Osoegawa, Stephen Richards, Chung-Li Shu, George M. Weinstock, G+C content:, Christine G. Elsik, leader, Laurent Duret, Eran Elhaik, Dan Graur, Justin T. Reese, Hugh M. Robertson, Transposable elements:, Hugh M. Robertson, leader, Christine G. Elsik, Gene regulation including miRNA and RNAi:, Ryszard Maleszka, leader, Daniel B. Weaver, leader, Gro V. Amdam, Juan M. Anzola, Kathryn S. Campbell, Kevin L. Childs, Derek Collinge, Madeline A. Crosby, C. Michael Dickens, Christine G. Elsik, Karl H. J. Gordon, L. Sian Gramates, Christina M. Grozinger, Peter L. Jones, Mireia Jorda, Xu Ling, Beverly B. Matthews, Jonathan Miller, Natalia V. Milshina, Craig Mizzen, Miguel A. Peinado, Justin T. Reese, Jeffrey G. Reid, Hugh M. Robertson, Gene E. Robinson, Susan M. Russo, Andrew J. Schroeder, Susan E. St Pierre, Ying Wang, Pinglei Zhou, Superscaffold assembly:, Hugh M. Robertson, leader, Richa Agarwala, Christine G. Elsik, Natalia V. Milshina, Justin T. Reese, Daniel B. Weaver, Data management:, Kim C. Worley, leader, Kevin L. Childs, C. Michael Dickens, Christine G. Elsik, William M. Gelbart, Huaiyang Jiang, Paul Kitts, Natalia V. Milshina, Justin T. Reese, Barbara Ruef, Susan M. Russo, Anand Venkatraman, George M. Weinstock, Lan Zhang, Pinglei Zhou, Chromosome structure:, J. Spencer Johnston, leader, Gildardo Aquino-Perez, Jean Marie Cornuet, Monique Monnerot, Michel Solignac, Dominique Vautrin, Population genetics and SNPs:, Charles W. Whitfield, leader, Susanta K. Behura, Stewart H. Berlocher, Andrew G. Clark, Richard A. Gibbs, J. Spencer Johnston, Walter S. Sheppard, Deborah R. Smith, Andrew V. Suarez, Neil D. Tsutsui, Daniel B. Weaver, Xuehong Wei, David Wheeler, Genome assembly:, George M. Weinstock, leader, Kim C. Worley, leader, Paul Havlak, Bingshan Li, Yue Liu, Erica Sodergren, Lan Zhang, (A+T)-rich DNA generation:, Martin Beye, leader, Martin Hasselmann, Angela Jolivet, Sandra Lee, Lynne V. Nazareth, Ling-Ling Pu, Rachel Thorn, George M. Weinstock, Tiling arrays:, Viktor Stolc, leader, Gene E. Robinson, leader, Ryszard Maleszka, Thomas Newman, Manoj Samanta, Waraporn A. Tongprasit, Anti-xenobiotic defence mechanisms:, Katherine A. Aronstein, leader, Charles Claudianos, leader, May R. Berenbaum, Sunita Biswas, Dirk C. de Graaf, Rene Feyereisen, Reed M. Johnson, John G. Oakeshott, Hilary Ranson, Mary A. Schuler, DNA sequencing:, Donna Muzny, leader, Richard A. Gibbs, leader, George M. Weinstock, leader, Joseph Chacko, Clay Davis, Huyen Dinh, Rachel Gill, Judith Hernandez, Sandra Hines, Jennifer Hume, LaRonda Jackson, Christie Kovar, Lora Lewis, George Miner, Margaret Morgan, Lynne V. Nazareth, Ngoc Nguyen, Geoffrey Okwuonu, Heidi Paul, Stephen Richards, Jireh Santibanez, Glenford Savery, Erica Sodergren, Amanda Svatek, Donna Villasana & Rita Wright


Symbiosis insights through metagenomic analysis of a microbial consortium p950

Tanja Woyke, Hanno Teeling, Natalia N. Ivanova, Marcel Huntemann, Michael Richter, Frank Oliver Gloeckner, Dario Boffelli, Iain J. Anderson, Kerrie W. Barry, Harris J. Shapiro, Ernest Szeto, Nikos C. Kyrpides, Marc Mussmann, Rudolf Amann, Claudia Bergin, Caroline Ruehland, Edward M. Rubin & Nicole Dubilier


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Stahl & Davidson

Complete crystallographic analysis of the dynamics of CCA sequence addition p956

Kozo Tomita, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Shuya Fukai & Osamu Nureki




Evidence for superfluidity of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice p961

J. K. Chin, D. E. Miller, Y. Liu, C. Stan, W. Setiawan, C. Sanner, K. Xu & W. Ketterle


Exploration of molecular dynamics during transient sorption of fluids in mesoporous materials p965

Rustem Valiullin, Sergej Naumov, Petrik Galvosas, Jörg Kärger, Hyung-June Woo, Fabien Porcheron & Peter A. Monson


A palaeotemperature curve for the Precambrian oceans based on silicon isotopes in cherts p969

François Robert & Marc Chaussidon


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by De La Rocha

Hydrous olivine unable to account for conductivity anomaly at the top of the asthenosphere p973

Takashi Yoshino, Takuya Matsuzaki, Shigeru Yamashita & Tomoo Katsura


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Hirth

The effect of water on the electrical conductivity of olivine p977

Duojun Wang, Mainak Mookherjee, Yousheng Xu & Shun-ichiro Karato


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Hirth

A lamprey from the Devonian period of South Africa p981

Robert W. Gess, Michael I. Coates & Bruce S. Rubidge


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Janvier

Regulatory constraints in the evolution of the tetrapod limb anterior–posterior polarity p985

Basile Tarchini, Denis Duboule & Marie Kmita


See also: Editor's summary

Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems p989

Bradley J. Cardinale, Diane S. Srivastava, J. Emmett Duffy, Justin P. Wright, Amy L. Downing, Mahesh Sankaran & Claire Jouseau


See also: Editor's summary

Corneal avascularity is due to soluble VEGF receptor-1 p993

Balamurali K. Ambati, Miho Nozaki, Nirbhai Singh, Atsunobu Takeda, Pooja D. Jani, Tushar Suthar, Romulo J. C. Albuquerque, Elizabeth Richter, Eiji Sakurai, Michael T. Newcomb, Mark E. Kleinman, Ruth B. Caldwell, Qing Lin, Yuichiro Ogura, Angela Orecchia, Don A. Samuelson, Dalen W. Agnew, Judy St. Leger, W. Richard Green, Parameshwar J. Mahasreshti, David T. Curiel, Donna Kwan, Helene Marsh, Sakae Ikeda, Lucy J. Leiper, J. Martin Collinson, Sasha Bogdanovich, Tejvir S. Khurana, Masabumi Shibuya, Megan E. Baldwin, Napoleone Ferrara, Hans-Peter Gerber, Sandro De Falco, Jassir Witta, Judit Z. Baffi, Brian J. Raisler & Jayakrishna Ambati


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Marte

Chronic polyarthritis caused by mammalian DNA that escapes from degradation in macrophages p998

Kohki Kawane, Mayumi Ohtani, Keiko Miwa, Takuji Kizawa, Yoshiyuki Kanbara, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Hideki Yoshikawa & Shigekazu Nagata


See also: Editor's summary

Amplification of histone genes by circular chromosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae p1003

Diana E. Libuda & Fred Winston


See also: Editor's summary

Distinct catalytic and non-catalytic roles of ARGONAUTE4 in RNA-directed DNA methylation p1008

Yijun Qi, Xingyue He, Xiu-Jie Wang, Oleksiy Kohany, Jerzy Jurka & Gregory J. Hannon




The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1 p1013

S. G. Gregory, K. F. Barlow, K. E. McLay, R. Kaul, D. Swarbreck, A. Dunham, C. E. Scott, K. L. Howe, K. Woodfine, C. C. A. Spencer, M. C. Jones, C. Gillson, S. Searle, Y. Zhou, F. Kokocinski, L. McDonald, R. Evans, K. Phillips, A. Atkinson, R. Cooper, C. Jones, R. E. Hall, T. D. Andrews, C. Lloyd, R. Ainscough, J. P. Almeida, K. D. Ambrose, F. Anderson, R. W. Andrew, R. I. S. Ashwell, K. Aubin, A. K. Babbage, C. L. Bagguley, J. Bailey, R. Banerjee, H. Beasley, G. Bethel, C. P. Bird, S. Bray-Allen, J. Y. Brown, A. J. Brown, S. P. Bryant, D. Buckley, D. C. Burford, W. D. H. Burrill, J. Burton, J. Bye, C. Carder, J. C. Chapman, S. Y. Clark, G. Clarke, C. Clee, S. M. Clegg, V. Cobley, R. E. Collier, N. Corby, G. J. Coville, J. Davies, R. Deadman, P. Dhami, O. Dovey, M. Dunn, M. Earthrowl, A. G. Ellington, H. Errington, L. M. Faulkner, A. Frankish, J. Frankland, L. French, P. Garner, J. Garnett, L. Gay, M. R. J. Ghori, R. Gibson, L. M. Gilby, W. Gillett, R. J. Glithero, D. V. Grafham, S. M. Gribble, C. Griffiths, S. Griffiths-Jones, R. Grocock, S. Hammond, E. S. I. Harrison, E. Hart, E. Haugen, P. D. Heath, S. Holmes, K. Holt, P. J. Howden, A. R. Hunt, S. E. Hunt, G. Hunter, J. Isherwood, R. James, C. Johnson, D. Johnson, A. Joy, M. Kay, J. K. Kershaw, M. Kibukawa, A. M. Kimberley, A. King, A. J. Knights, H. Lad, G. Laird, C. F. Langford, S. Lawlor, D. A. Leongamornlert, D. M. Lloyd, J. Loveland, J. Lovell, M. J. Lush, R. Lyne, S. Martin, M. Mashreghi-Mohammadi, L. Matthews, N. S. W. Matthews, S. McLaren, S. Milne, S. Mistry, M. J. F. M. oore, T. Nickerson, C. N. O'Dell, K. Oliver, A. Palmeiri, S. A. Palmer, R. D. Pandian, A. Parker, D. Patel, A. V. Pearce, A. I. Peck, S. Pelan, K. Phelps, B. J. Phillimore, R. Plumb, K. M. Porter, E. Prigmore, J. Rajan, C. Raymond, G. Rouse, C. Saenphimmachak, H. K. Sehra, E. Sheridan, R. Shownkeen, S. Sims, C. D. Skuce, M. Smith, C. Steward, S. Subramanian, N. Sycamore, A. Tracey, A. Tromans, Z. Van Helmond, M. Wall J. M. Wallis, S. White, S. L. Whitehead, J. E. Wilkinson, D. L. Willey, H. Williams, L. Wilming, P. W. Wray, Z. Wu, A. Coulson, M. Vaudin, J. E. Sulston, R. Durbin, T. Hubbard, R. Wooster, I. Dunham, N. P. Carter, G. McVean, M. T. Ross, J. Harrow, M. V. Olson, S. Beck, J. Rogers & D. R. Bentley


Retraction: Origin of the obliquities of the giant planets in mutual interactions in the early Solar System p1013

Adrián Brunini


Corrigendum: Complete photo-fragmentation of the deuterium molecule p1014

T. Weber, A. O. Czasch, O. Jagutzki, A. K. Müller, V. Mergel, A. Kheifets, E. Rotenberg, G. Meigs, M. H. Prior, S. Daveau, A. Landers, C. L. Cocke, T. Osipov, R. Díez Muiño, H. Schmidt-Böcking & R. Dörner



Technology Features

Something to see p1017

Light microscopy is undergoing a renaissance, with a huge range of tools and techniques for gathering biological data with unprecedented speed and resolution. Michael Eisenstein takes a closer look.

Michael Eisenstein


Achieving clarity p1017


Thinking big, seeing small p1019


Tower of Babel p1021





Prospects p1025

UK academic salary analysis offers mixed news.

Paul Smaglik



Northern exposure p1026

An alliance of universities in the north of England hopes to transform Britain's former industrial heartland into a centre of scientific excellence. Paul Smaglik reports.

Paul Smaglik


Career Views

Carl Pilcher, director, NASA Astrobiology Institute, Moffett Field, California p1028

Virginia Gewin


Made-to-measure postdocs p1028

Mandë Holford


How studies can save a life p1028

Milan de Vries



Spotlight: N8 Group




Take over p1030

A real identity crisis.

Jon Courtenay Grimwood


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