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Editorials

Whistleblowers in peril p121

The US Congress should reverse a pernicious removal of protection of federal employees.

doi:10.1038/443121a


Flickers of consciousness p121

Brain scans are forcing researchers to reconsider the state of outwardly unresponsive patients.

doi:10.1038/443121b


Resisting terrorism p122

Government agencies, stakeholders and fellow researchers need to support primate researchers.

doi:10.1038/443122a


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p124

doi:10.1038/443124a


Correction p125

doi:10.1038/443125a


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News

Neutrinos make a splash in Italy p126

Long-awaited experiment comes online.

Nicola Nosengo

doi:10.1038/443126a


Warning flag for ethics boards p127

Institutional review panels form wildly different judgements.

Jim Giles

doi:10.1038/443127a


Journey to the birth of the Universe p128

Record-breaking galaxy found.

Jenny Hogan

doi:10.1038/443128a


Biomedical research gets a fresh twist down on the farm p128

Lab for unconventional work opens its doors.

Gene Russo

doi:10.1038/443128b


Snapshot: Women at work p131

Alison Abbott

doi:10.1038/443131a


Extreme TB strain threatens HIV victims worldwide p131

South Africa outbreak may prove impossible to contain.

Emma Marris

doi:10.1038/443131b


Sidelines p132

doi:10.1038/443132a


'Vegetative' patient shows signs of conscious thought p132

Evidence of brain activity raises issues for neurologists.

Michael Hopkin

doi:10.1038/443132b


News in brief p134

doi:10.1038/443134a


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Business

Nanotech's big issue p137

Lack of regulation and risk assessment could hamper the nanotechnology sector. Virginia Gewin reports.

doi:10.1038/443137a


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News Features

Ornithology: Digging for dodo p138

No one has seen a dodo in three and a half centuries, but that hasn't stopped the bizarre speculation about this extinct bird. Henry Nicholls investigates whether recent excavations in Mauritius could reveal the real creature.

doi:10.1038/443138a

See also: Editor's summary


Climate change: A cosmic connection p141

Physicists and climate scientists have long argued over whether changes to the Sun affect the Earth's climate? A cloud chamber could help clear up the dispute, reports Jeff Kanipe.

doi:10.1038/443141a


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Correspondence

Investigator-initiated trials are more impartial p144

Bradley C. Johnston and Sunita Vohra

doi:10.1038/443144a


Biochar trials aim to enrich soil for smallholders p144

William I. Woods, Newton P. S. Falcão and Wenceslau G. Teixeira

doi:10.1038/443144b


Biochar and biofuels for a brighter future p144

M. H. B. Hayes

doi:10.1038/443144c


Science networks spread throughout the Arab world p144

A. Abyad

doi:10.1038/443144d


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Books and Arts

Our place in the Multiverse p145

Was the appearance of a Universe that can support life inevitable?

Joseph Silk reviews Many Worlds In One by Alex Vilenkin

doi:10.1038/443145a


Back on track p146

Ann S. Masten reviews Out of the Woods: Tales of Resilient Teens by Stuart T. Hauser, Joseph P. Allen and Eve Golden

doi:10.1038/443146a


A mathematical tonic p147

Timothy Gowers reviews Dr Euler's Fabulous Formula: Cures Many Mathematical Ills by Paul Nahin

doi:10.1038/443147a


Correction p147

doi:10.1038/443147b


In Retrospect: A global vision p148

Alison Jolly reviews The Ecological Theatre and the Evolutionary Play by George Evelyn Hutchinson

doi:10.1038/443148a

See also: Editor's summary


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News and Views

Evolutionary biology: Human brain gene wins genome race p149

The differences in brain size and function that separate humans from other mammals must be reflected in our genomes. It seems that the non-coding 'dark matter' of genomes harbours most of these vital changes.

Chris P. Ponting and Gerton Lunter

doi:10.1038/nature05154

See also: Editor's summary


Crystallography: Solid oxygen takes shape p150

Oxygen crystallizes into a sequence of structures, starting as an insulator at low pressure and becoming a superconductor at high pressure. The elusive structure of an intermediate phase has now been determined.

Burkhard Militzer and Russell J. Hemley

doi:10.1038/443150a

See also: Editor's summary


Astronomy: Dawn after the dark age p151

The latest surveys provide evidence for one, maybe two, galaxies farther back in cosmic time than ever detected before. But does the fact that we don't see more mean these are the very first galaxies to be formed?

Richard McMahon

doi:10.1038/443151a

See also: Editor's summary


Cancer biology: Can less be more for p53? p153

The tumour-suppressor protein p53 is often mutated in cancer. But it seems that p53 deficiency is not all bad, and inhibiting this protein might mitigate toxic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Anton Berns

doi:10.1038/443153a

See also: Editor's summary


Quantum physics: Observing and the observed p154

Quantum mechanics states that the measurement process can fundamentally alter what is being measured. This 'back-action' has been observed on the macroscopic scale — in the vibrations of a tiny mechanical device.

Michael Roukes

doi:10.1038/443154a


50 & 100 years ago p156

doi:10.1038/443156a

See also: Editor's summary


Structural biology: The ins and outs of drug transport p156

Multidrug transporters provide cells with a defence against toxic chemicals, but they are also responsible for drug resistance. The structures of two such transporters reveal novel aspects of their mechanisms.

Shimon Schuldiner

doi:10.1038/443156b


Entomology: To catch a bee p158

Helen Dell

doi:10.1038/443155a


Obituary: James A. Van Allen (1914–2006) p158

Magnetospheric and space physicist, discoverer of the eponymous belts.

Donald A. Gurnett

doi:10.1038/443158a


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Brief Communications

Tumour biology: Policing of oncogene activity by p53 p159

Oncogenes, rather than DNA damage, may provide the key signal to p53 to trigger tumour suppression.

Alejo Efeyan, Isabel Garcia-Cao, Daniel Herranz, Susana Velasco-Miguel and Manuel Serrano

doi:10.1038/443159a

See also: Editor's summary


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Brief Communications Arising

Archaeology: Progress and pitfalls in radiocarbon dating pE3

Chris S. M. Turney, Richard G. Roberts and Zenobia Jacobs

doi:10.1038/nature05214


Archaeology: Progress and pitfalls in radiocarbon dating (Reply) pE4

Paul Mellars

doi:10.1038/nature05215


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Review

Variations in solar luminosity and their effect on the Earth's climate p161

P. Foukal, C. Fröhlich, H. Spruit and T. M. L. Wigley

doi:10.1038/nature05072

See also: Editor's summary


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Articles

An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans p167

Katherine S. Pollard, Sofie R. Salama, Nelle Lambert, Marie-Alexandra Lambot, Sandra Coppens, Jakob S. Pedersen, Sol Katzman, Bryan King, Courtney Onodera, Adam Siepel, Andrew D. Kern, Colette Dehay, Haller Igel, Manuel Ares, Jr, Pierre Vanderhaeghen and David Haussler

doi:10.1038/nature05113

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Ponting & Lunter


Crystal structures of a multidrug transporter reveal a functionally rotating mechanism p173

Satoshi Murakami, Ryosuke Nakashima, Eiki Yamashita, Takashi Matsumoto and Akihito Yamaguchi

doi:10.1038/nature05076

See also: Editor's summary


Structure of a bacterial multidrug ABC transporter p180

Roger J. P. Dawson and Kaspar P. Locher

doi:10.1038/nature05155

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

A galaxy at a redshift z = 6.96 p186

Masanori Iye, Kazuaki Ota, Nobunari Kashikawa, Hisanori Furusawa, Tetsuya Hashimoto, Takashi Hattori, Yuichi Matsuda, Tomoki Morokuma, Masami Ouchi and Kazuhiro Shimasaku

doi:10.1038/nature05104

See also: Editor's summary


Rapid evolution of the most luminous galaxies during the first 900 million years p189

Rychard J. Bouwens and Garth D. Illingworth

doi:10.1038/nature05156

See also: Editor's summary


Cooling a nanomechanical resonator with quantum back-action p193

A. Naik, O. Buu, M. D. LaHaye, A. D. Armour, A. A. Clerk, M. P. Blencowe and K. C. Schwab

doi:10.1038/nature05027


Oscillatory dependence of current-driven magnetic domain wall motion on current pulse length p197

Luc Thomas, Masamitsu Hayashi, Xin Jiang, Rai Moriya, Charles Rettner and Stuart S. P. Parkin

doi:10.1038/nature05093

See also: Editor's summary


Observation of an O8 molecular lattice in the alt epsilon phase of solid oxygen p201

Lars F. Lundegaard, Gunnar Weck, Malcolm I. McMahon, Serge Desgreniers and Paul Loubeyre

doi:10.1038/nature05174

See also: Editor's summary


Land–atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe p205

Sonia I. Seneviratne, Daniel Lüthi, Michael Litschi and Christoph Schär

doi:10.1038/nature05095

See also: Editor's summary


The tumour suppressor Hippo acts with the NDR kinases in dendritic tiling and maintenance p210

Kazuo Emoto, Jay Z. Parrish, Lily Yeh Jan and Yuh-Nung Jan

doi:10.1038/nature05090


The pathological response to DNA damage does not contribute to p53-mediated tumour suppression p214

M. A. Christophorou, I. Ringshausen, A. J. Finch, L. Brown Swigart and G. I. Evan

doi:10.1038/nature05077


Structure of the insulin receptor ectodomain reveals a folded-over conformation p218

Neil M. McKern, Michael C. Lawrence, Victor A. Streltsov, Mei-Zhen Lou, Timothy E. Adams, George O. Lovrecz, Thomas C. Elleman, Kim M. Richards, John D. Bentley, Patricia A. Pilling, Peter A. Hoyne, Kellie A. Cartledge, Tam M. Pham, Jennifer L. Lewis, Sonia E. Sankovich, Violet Stoichevska, Elizabeth Da Silva, Christine P. Robinson, Maurice J. Frenkel, Lindsay G. Sparrow, Ross T. Fernley, V. Chandana Epa and Colin W. Ward

doi:10.1038/nature05106

See also: Editor's summary


Autophosphorylation at serine 1987 is dispensable for murine Atm activation in vivo p222

Manuela Pellegrini, Arkady Celeste, Simone Difilippantonio, Rong Guo, Weidong Wang, Lionel Feigenbaum and André Nussenzweig

doi:10.1038/nature05112


Molecular identification of the CRAC channel by altered ion selectivity in a mutant of Orai p226

Andriy V. Yeromin, Shenyuan L. Zhang, Weihua Jiang, Ying Yu, Olga Safrina and Michael D. Cahalan

doi:10.1038/nature05108

See also: Editor's summary


Orai1 is an essential pore subunit of the CRAC channel p230

Murali Prakriya, Stefan Feske, Yousang Gwack, Sonal Srikanth, Anjana Rao and Patrick G. Hogan

doi:10.1038/nature05122

See also: Editor's summary


An intron with a constitutive transport element is retained in a Tap messenger RNA p234

Ying Li, Yeou-cherng Bor, Yukiko Misawa, Yuming Xue, David Rekosh and Marie-Louise Hammarskjöld

doi:10.1038/nature05107


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Prospects p239

The anniversary of Hurricane Katrina reminds all scientists of a valuable lesson: be prepared.

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7108-239a


Postdocs and Students

When it's personal p240

Personal problems can overwhelm an already stressful young research career, but sound strategies can help you stay the course, counsels Kendall Powell

Kendall Powell

doi:10.1038/nj7108-240a


Careers and Recruitment

Richard Granger, director, Neukom Institute for Computational Science, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire p242

Richard Granger set to head up centre that combines his love of computers and neuroscience.

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7108-242a


Coming home p242

Returning home to Croatia to conduct science required persistence and patience.

Livia Puljak

doi:10.1038/nj7108-242b


Tables turned p242

Facing the reality of being a graduate-student supervisor.

Mhairi Dupré

doi:10.1038/nj7108-242c


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Futures

The trial of Jeremy Owens p244

The memory lingers on.

Peter Roberts

doi:10.1038/443244a


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