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Boosting access to disease data p957

A new agreement by stakeholders to improve the sharing of flu data should eventually stimulate research on many infectious diseases. Now to make it work.


Rude palaeoanthropology p957

Controversies over Homo floresiensis reflect a flourishing science.


Cheap IVF needed p958

False perceptions are hindering access to new research on in vitro fertilization.



Research Highlights

Research highlights p960




Locals rally to combat biodefence labs p962

Protests mount against classified research centres.

Erika Check


Plan to pool bird-flu data takes off p963

Researchers welcome bid to share resources.

Helen Pearson


Sidelines p964


Cash-strapped research ship must earn its living p964

High running costs threaten Chikyu's scientific agenda.

David Cyranoski


Pluto: the backlash begins p965

Astronomers petition against new definition of a planet.

Jenny Hogan


Diary of a planet's demise p966

While attending the International Astronomical Union's meeting in Prague, Jenny Hogan kept the world up to date on the Pluto debate through our newsblog. Edited excerpts:


Lunar probe ready to bite the dust p969

SMART-1 prepares to go out with a bang.

Geoff Brumfiel


News in brief p970




Mothers of invention? p973

Women academics are less likely than men to take out patents. Emma Marris investigates the reasons why.



News Features

IVF in Africa: Fertility on a shoestring p975

IVF isn't something most Westerners associate with Africa. But low-cost methods are urgently needed to treat the misery of infertility rampant on the continent, says Helen Pilcher.


Oceanography: Sick seas p978

The rising level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is making the world's oceans more acidic. Jacqueline Ruttimann reports on the potentially catastrophic effect this could have on marine creatures.




A global initiative on sharing avian flu data p981

Peter Bogner, Ilaria Capua, Nancy J. Cox, David J. Lipman and others


See also: Editor's summary

Offsets could mitigate damage to biodiversity p981

Art Blundell


See also: Editor's summary

Funders should allow for cost of publication p981

Hernán A. Burbano


See also: Editor's summary


Books and Arts

Selling Darwin p983

Does it matter whether evolution has any commercial applications?

Jerry A. Coyne reviews The Evolving World: Evolution in Everyday Life by David P. Mindell


Triumph and dismal failure p984

Don Ihde reviews Technology Matters: Questions to Live With by David Nye


On fertile ground p985

Camilla Toulmin reviews Soils and Societies: Perspectives from Environmental History edited by J. R. McNeill and Verena Winiwater


In Retrospect: Out of the darkness p986

Jay M. Pasachoff reviews The Black Cloud by Fred Hoyle



News and Views

Immunology: Protection and privilege p987

The immune system not only attacks microbes, but also regulates itself to avoid harming vital organs. Cells notorious for their involvement in allergy turn out to be vital to this protective function.

Herman Waldmann


See also: Editor's summary

Cosmology: Unique, or not unique? p988

That is the question. The search for a single theory of everything is as old as science itself, and is now the beat of quantum cosmologists. But some basic tenets that inform the quest are being challenged.

Martin Bojowald


50 & 100 Years ago p989


Spectroscopy: Shifting light with spin p990

NMR spectroscopy has changed enormously over the years, but signal detection has stayed the same since the technique was invented. The latest thinking literally shines a new light on things.

Warren S. Warren


See also: Editor's summary

Cell biology: Taking a turn into the nucleus p991

How soluble proteins get into the cell nucleus is known in great detail, but how membrane proteins make it into the inner nuclear membrane has long been an enigma. The two processes in fact turn out to be related.

Ulrike Kutay and Petra Mühlhäusser


See also: Editor's summary

Astrophysics: Shock breakout caught on camera p992

What exactly is the relationship between bursts of cosmic gamma-rays and the stellar explosions known as supernovae? Intimate, it seems: highly magnetic neutron stars might even have spawned both.

Timothy R. Young


See also: Editor's summary

Nanoscience: Small talk p994

Is rebranding research as 'nanoscience' just jumping on the bandwagon? A recent conference in Basel proves that the name does at least attract researchers from different disciplines to mingle for mutual inspiration.

Liesbeth Venema


Parasitology: Peculiar lipid production p995

Joshua M. Finkelstein


Obituary: Setsuro Ebashi (1922–2006) p996

Physiologist who uncovered the regulatory role of calcium in cells.

Makoto Endo




Mast cells are essential intermediaries in regulatory T-cell tolerance p997

Li-Fan Lu, Evan F. Lind, David C. Gondek, Kathy A. Bennett, Michael W. Gleeson, Karina Pino-Lagos, Zachary A. Scott, Anthony J. Coyle, Jennifer L. Reed, Jacques Van Snick, Terry B. Strom, Xin Xiao Zheng and Randolph J. Noelle


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Waldmann

Karyopherin-mediated import of integral inner nuclear membrane proteins p1003

Megan C. King, C. Patrick Lusk and Günter Blobel


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Kutay & Mühlhäusser



The association of GRB 060218 with a supernova and the evolution of the shock wave p1008

S. Campana, V. Mangano, A. J. Blustin, P. Brown, D. N. Burrows, G. Chincarini, J. R. Cummings, G. Cusumano, M. Della Valle, D. Malesani, P. Mészáros, J. A. Nousek, M. Page, T. Sakamoto, E. Waxman, B. Zhang, Z. G. Dai, N. Gehrels, S. Immler, F. E. Marshall, K. O. Mason, A. Moretti, P. T. O'Brien, J. P. Osborne, K. L. Page, P. Romano, P. W. A. Roming, G. Tagliaferri, L. R. Cominsky, P. Giommi, O. Godet, J. A. Kennea, H. Krimm, L. Angelini, S. D. Barthelmy, P. T. Boyd, D. M. Palmer, A. A. Wells and N. E. White


See also: Editor's summary

An optical supernova associated with the X-ray flash XRF 060218 p1011

E. Pian, P. A. Mazzali, N. Masetti, P. Ferrero, S. Klose, E. Palazzi, E. Ramirez-Ruiz, S. E. Woosley, C. Kouveliotou, J. Deng, A. V. Filippenko, R. J. Foley, J. P. U. Fynbo, D. A. Kann, W. Li, J. Hjorth, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, D. N. Sauer, J. Sollerman, P. M. Vreeswijk, E. W. Guenther, A. Levan, P. O'Brien, N. R. Tanvir, R. A. M. J. Wijers, C. Dumas, O. Hainaut, D. S. Wong, D. Baade, L. Wang, L. Amati, E. Cappellaro, A. J. Castro-Tirado, S. Ellison, F. Frontera, A. S. Fruchter, J. Greiner, K. Kawabata, C. Ledoux, K. Maeda, P. Møller, L. Nicastro, E. Rol and R. Starling


See also: Editor's summary

Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions p1014

A. M. Soderberg, S. R. Kulkarni, E. Nakar, E. Berger, P. B. Cameron, D. B. Fox, D. Frail, A. Gal-Yam, R. Sari, S. B. Cenko, M. Kasliwal, R. A. Chevalier, T. Piran, P. A. Price, B. P. Schmidt, G. Pooley, D.-S. Moon, B. E. Penprase, E. Ofek, A. Rau, N. Gehrels, J. A. Nousek, D. N. Burrows, S. E. Persson and P. J. McCarthy


See also: Editor's summary

A neutron-star-driven X-ray flash associated with supernova SN 2006aj p1018

Paolo A. Mazzali, Jinsong Deng, Ken'ichi Nomoto, Daniel N. Sauer, Elena Pian, Nozomu Tominaga, Masaomi Tanaka, Keiichi Maeda and Alexei V. Filippenko


See also: Editor's summary

Optical detection of liquid-state NMR p1021

I. M. Savukov, S.-K. Lee and M. V. Romalis


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Warren

Controls on tropical Pacific Ocean productivity revealed through nutrient stress diagnostics p1025

Michael J. Behrenfeld, Kirby Worthington, Robert M. Sherrell, Francisco P. Chavez, Peter Strutton, Michael McPhaden and Donald M. Shea


See also: Editor's summary

Discovery of a magma chamber and faults beneath a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal field p1029

Satish C. Singh, Wayne C. Crawford, Hélène Carton, Tim Seher, Violaine Combier, Mathilde Cannat, Juan Pablo Canales, Doga Düsünür, Javier Escartin and J. Miguel Miranda


See also: Editor's summary

Evidence that mechanisms of fin development evolved in the midline of early vertebrates p1033

Renata Freitas, GuangJun Zhang and Martin J. Cohn


See also: Editor's summary

The emergence of geometric order in proliferating metazoan epithelia p1038

Matthew C. Gibson, Ankit B. Patel, Radhika Nagpal and Norbert Perrimon


See also: Editor's summary

Dopamine-dependent prediction errors underpin reward-seeking behaviour in humans p1042

Mathias Pessiglione, Ben Seymour, Guillaume Flandin, Raymond J. Dolan and Chris D. Frith


See also: Editor's summary

Transgeneration memory of stress in plants p1046

Jean Molinier, Gerhard Ries, Cyril Zipfel and Barbara Hohn


See also: Editor's summary

Dynamics of heat shock factor association with native gene loci in living cells p1050

Jie Yao, Katherine M. Munson, Watt W. Webb and John T. Lis


Proteolytic turnover of the Gal4 transcription factor is not required for function in vivo p1054

Kip Nalley, Stephen Albert Johnston and Thomas Kodadek


See also: Editor's summary

Nutrient regulates Tor1 nuclear localization and association with rDNA promoter p1058

Hong Li, Chi Kwan Tsang, Marcus Watkins, Paula G. Bertram and X. F. Steven Zheng


In situ structure of the complete Treponema primitia flagellar motor p1062

Gavin E. Murphy, Jared R. Leadbetter and Grant J. Jensen


See also: Editor's summary


Technology Features

Microarrays: Quality control p1067

Doubt is often cast on the reliability of DNA microarrays, but resources are becoming available to help researchers overcome many of the problems inherent in this technology. Michael Eisenstein reports.

Michael Eisenstein


See also: Editor's summary

Microarrays: Standards and practices p1067


Microarrays: Hands off! p1068


Microarrays: Share and share alike p1069


Microarrays: Table of suppliers p1071





Prospect p1073

Representation of women in science comes under scrutiny.

Paul Smaglik




The key p1076

The future's in your hands.

Ian Whates


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