Nature 442, 692-695 (10 August 2006) | doi:10.1038/nature04982; Received 25 January 2006; Accepted 16 June 2006; Published online 26 July 2006

There is a Corrigendum (5 October 2006) associated with this document.

Microstimulation of inferotemporal cortex influences face categorization

Seyed-Reza Afraz1,2, Roozbeh Kiani1,2 & Hossein Esteky1,2,3

  1. School of Cognitive Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran, 19395, Iran
  2. Research Center for Brain and Cognitive Sciences,
  3. Neuroscience Research Center, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 19385, Iran

Correspondence to: Hossein Esteky1,2,3 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to H.E. (Email: esteky@ipm.ir).

The inferior temporal cortex (IT) of primates is thought to be the final visual area in the ventral stream of cortical areas responsible for object recognition1, 2. Consistent with this hypothesis, single IT neurons respond selectively to highly complex visual stimuli such as faces3, 4, 5, 6. However, a direct causal link between the activity of face-selective neurons and face perception has not been demonstrated. In the present study of macaque monkeys, we artificially activated small clusters of IT neurons by means of electrical microstimulation while the monkeys performed a categorization task, judging whether noisy visual images belonged to 'face' or 'non-face' categories. Here we show that microstimulation of face-selective sites, but not other sites, strongly biased the monkeys' decisions towards the face category. The magnitude of the effect depended upon the degree of face selectivity of the stimulation site, the size of the stimulated cluster of face-selective neurons, and the exact timing of microstimulation. Our results establish a causal relationship between the activity of face-selective neurons and face perception.


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