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Editorials

Coming in from the cold p127

Science in the Arctic cries out for better coordination — perhaps modelled on what happens in Antarctica.

doi:10.1038/441127a


Special provision p127

Some research centres are more equal than others.

doi:10.1038/441127b


Let the data flow p128

US legislation could fill a gap in drought research.

doi:10.1038/441128a


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p130

doi:10.1038/441130a


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News

Arab state pours oil profits into science p132

Qatar pumps fossil-fuel revenues towards research initiative.

Jim Giles

doi:10.1038/441132a


Arctic stations need human touch p133

Meteorologists say automated data collection is failing.

Quirin Schiermeier

doi:10.1038/441133a


Sidelines p134

doi:10.1038/441134a


Outspoken: Mike Griffin on the NASA budget p134

Space agency chief answers his critics.

Tony Reichhardt

doi:10.1038/441134b


Are rich nations up for drug reform? p135

The WHO is urged to act on neglected diseases.

Erika Check

doi:10.1038/441135a


Avian flu and the New World p137

The H5N1 avian influenza virus has not yet reached North and South America. What will happen when it does? Declan Butler and Jacqueline Ruttimann investigate.

doi:10.1038/441137a


State's flu response raises concern p139

Official alerts play down possible H5 strain found in New Jersey.

Jacqueline Ruttimann

doi:10.1038/441139a


News in brief p140

doi:10.1038/441140a


Corrections p141

doi:10.1038/441141a


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News Features

Epigenetics: Unfinished symphony p143

To correctly 'play' the DNA score in our genome, cells must read another notation that overlays it — the epigenetic code. A global effort to decode it is now in the making, reports Jane Qiu.

doi:10.1038/441143a

See also: Editor's summary


Arctic ecology: On thin ice p146

The Arctic is the bellwether of climate change, which shows up there first and fastest. Quirin Schiermeier visits ecologists struggling to keep up.

doi:10.1038/441146a


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Business

Challengers in the field p149

Colin Macilwain

doi:10.1038/441149a


In brief p149

doi:10.1038/441149b


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Correspondence

Medical council funds both clinical and basic research p150

Colin Blakemore

doi:10.1038/441150a


Exaggerating one's success is rife in Chinese academia p150

Zheng Huang

doi:10.1038/441150b


Allergy test might have avoided drug-trial disaster p150

John H. Weis

doi:10.1038/441150c


Keeping an eye on privacy issues with geospatial data p150

Andrew Curtis, Jacqueline W. Mills and Michael Leitner

doi:10.1038/441150d


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Spring Books

Evolution of the selfish gene p151

The thirtieth anniversary of Richard Dawkins' landmark work provides an opportunity to take stock.

Dan Sperber reviews Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think edited by Alan Grafen and Mark Ridley

doi:10.1038/441151a

See also: Editor's summary


Renaissance magic and mysticism p152

Rina Knoeff reviews The Devil's Doctor: Paracelsus and the World of Renaissance Magic and Science by Philip Ball

doi:10.1038/441152a


The soldier's tale p153

Matt Ridley reviews Won for All: How the Drosophila Genome was Sequenced by Michael Ashburner

doi:10.1038/441153a


Human frailties p155

Ian Tattersall reviews The First Human: The Race to Discover Our Earliest Ancestors by Ann Gibbons

doi:10.1038/441155a


Science's secret service p156

Daniel S. Greenberg reviews The Jasons: The Secret History of Science's Postwar Elite by Ann Finkbeiner

doi:10.1038/441156a


A journey to remember p157

Yadin Dudai reviews In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind by Eric R. Kandel

doi:10.1038/441157a


The ant trail p159

Laurent Keller reviews Nature Revealed: Selected Writings, 1949–2006 by Edward O. Wilson

doi:10.1038/441159a


A cross-cultural relationship p160

Rebecca Goldstein reviews The Literary Animal: Evolution and the Nature of Narrative edited by Jonathan Gottschall and David Sloan Wilson

doi:10.1038/441160a


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News and Views

Vaccines: Engineering immune evasion p161

One obstacle to realizing the promise of viral vectors for vaccine delivery is pre-existing immunity to such vectors. An adroit application of structure-based design points to a way around that problem.

John R. Mascola

doi:10.1038/441161a

See also: Editor's summary


Solar system: Interplanetary kidnap p162

Triton, Neptune's largest moon, was probably part of a two-body object similar to the Pluto–Charon system. This tandem might have been ripped apart when it strayed too close to the planet that Triton is now orbiting.

Alessandro Morbidelli

doi:10.1038/441162a

See also: Editor's summary


Cell biology: Cracking the calcium entry code p163

A sharp increase in the concentration of calcium ions in a cell is a key biological signal. Now a vital component of a major route by which calcium ions flow into cells has been identified.

Anant B. Parekh

doi:10.1038/441163a

See also: Editor's summary


Chemistry: A catalytic knight's move p165

The reactivity of inert hydrocarbons can be transformed by a catalytic double act. With the ability to manipulate the lengths of the resulting carbon chains, this development opens up fresh vistas.

Robert H. Crabtree

doi:10.1038/441165a


Immunology: What does it mean to be just 17? p166

For a long time it was thought that there are only two types of T helper cell. But it is becoming clear that there may be other lineages that influence inflammatory responses in certain circumstances.

Cristina M. Tato and John J. O'Shea

doi:10.1038/441166a


50 & 100 years ago p167

doi:10.1038/441167a


Thermodynamics: When a phase is born p168

Phase changes in matter generally occur by building up from small nuclei of the new phase. Scattering experiments and computer simulations reveal the characteristic size of the smallest of these nuclei.

Pablo G. Debenedetti

doi:10.1038/441168a


Analytical chemistry: Cause for a llama p169

Richard Webb

doi:10.1038/441169a

See also: Editor's summary


Geochemistry: The noble art of recycling p169

Xenon trapped beneath Earth's crust provides clues to how our planet evolved, but quantifying atmospheric contamination has been impossible. The latest analysis surmounts a barrier to our understanding.

Takuya Matsumoto

doi:10.1038/441169b


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Brief Communications

Diving insects boost their buoyancy bubbles p171

Underwater backswimmers use their haemoglobin to help them stay stationary while waiting for prey.

Philip G. D. Matthews and Roger S. Seymour

doi:10.1038/441171a

See also: Editor's summary


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Brief Communications Arising

Corrigendum: Sporting contests: Seeing red? Putting sportswear into context pE3

doi:10.1038/nature04848


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Articles

Systems biology approaches identify ATF3 as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 4 p173

Mark Gilchrist, Vesteinn Thorsson, Bin Li, Alistair G. Rust, Martin Korb, Kathleen Kennedy, Tsonwin Hai, Hamid Bolouri and Alan Aderem

doi:10.1038/nature04768

See also: Editor's summary


A mutation in Orai1 causes immune deficiency by abrogating CRAC channel function p179

Stefan Feske, Yousang Gwack, Murali Prakriya, Sonal Srikanth, Sven-Holger Puppel, Bogdan Tanasa, Patrick G. Hogan, Richard S. Lewis, Mark Daly and Anjana Rao

doi:10.1038/nature04702

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Parekh


Seawater subduction controls the heavy noble gas composition of the mantle p186

Greg Holland and Chris J. Ballentine

doi:10.1038/nature04761

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Matsumoto


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Letters

Neptune's capture of its moon Triton in a binary–planet gravitational encounter p192

Craig B. Agnor and Douglas P. Hamilton

doi:10.1038/nature04792

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Morbidelli


Local switching of two-dimensional superconductivity using the ferroelectric field effect p195

K. S. Takahashi, M. Gabay, D. Jaccard, K. Shibuya, T. Ohnishi, M. Lippmaa and J.-M. Triscone

doi:10.1038/nature04731


Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material p199

Rune S. Jacobsen, Karin N. Andersen, Peter I. Borel, Jacob Fage-Pedersen, Lars H. Frandsen, Ole Hansen, Martin Kristensen, Andrei V. Lavrinenko, Gaid Moulin, Haiyan Ou, Christophe Peucheret, Beáta Zsigri and Anders Bjarklev

doi:10.1038/nature04706

See also: Editor's summary


Discovery of a 25-cm asteroid clast in the giant Morokweng impact crater, South Africa p203

W. D. Maier, M. A. G. Andreoli, I. McDonald, M. D. Higgins, A. J. Boyce, A. Shukolyukov, G. W. Lugmair, L. D. Ashwal, P. Gräser, E. M. Ripley and R. J. Hart

doi:10.1038/nature04751

See also: Editor's summary


New carbon dates link climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions p207

R. Dale Guthrie

doi:10.1038/nature04604

See also: Editor's summary


Sympatric speciation in palms on an oceanic island p210

Vincent Savolainen, Marie-Charlotte Anstett, Christian Lexer, Ian Hutton, James J. Clarkson, Maria V. Norup, Martyn P. Powell, David Springate, Nicolas Salamin and William J. Baker

doi:10.1038/nature04566


Future fitness and helping in social queues p214

Jeremy Field, Adam Cronin and Catherine Bridge

doi:10.1038/nature04560

See also: Editor's summary


Specification of the neural crest occurs during gastrulation and requires Pax7 p218

Martín L. Basch, Marianne Bronner-Fraser and Martín I. García-Castro

doi:10.1038/nature04684


Neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex encode economic value p223

Camillo Padoa-Schioppa and John A. Assad

doi:10.1038/nature04676

See also: Editor's summary


A trehalose metabolic enzyme controls inflorescence architecture in maize p227

Namiko Satoh-Nagasawa, Nobuhiro Nagasawa, Simon Malcomber, Hajime Sakai and David Jackson

doi:10.1038/nature04725


Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the TH17 lineage p231

Paul R. Mangan, Laurie E. Harrington, Darrell B. O'Quinn, Whitney S. Helms, Daniel C. Bullard, Charles O. Elson, Robin D. Hatton, Sharon M. Wahl, Trenton R. Schoeb and Casey T. Weaver

doi:10.1038/nature04754

See also: News and Views by Tato & O'Shea


Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells p235

Estelle Bettelli, Yijun Carrier, Wenda Gao, Thomas Korn, Terry B. Strom, Mohamed Oukka, Howard L. Weiner and Vijay K. Kuchroo

doi:10.1038/nature04753

See also: News and Views by Tato & O'Shea


Hexon-chimaeric adenovirus serotype 5 vectors circumvent pre-existing anti-vector immunity p239

Diane M. Roberts, Anjali Nanda, Menzo J. E. Havenga, Peter Abbink, Diana M. Lynch, Bonnie A. Ewald, Jinyan Liu, Anna R. Thorner, Patricia E. Swanson, Darci A. Gorgone, Michelle A. Lifton, Angelique A. C. Lemckert, Lennart Holterman, Bing Chen, Athmanundh Dilraj, Angela Carville, Keith G. Mansfield, Jaap Goudsmit and Dan H. Barouch

doi:10.1038/nature04721

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Mascola


A mechanical explanation of RNA pseudoknot function in programmed ribosomal frameshifting p244

Olivier Namy, Stephen J. Moran, David I. Stuart, Robert J. C. Gilbert and Ian Brierley

doi:10.1038/nature04735

See also: Editor's summary


Corrigendum: Lipid–protein interactions in double-layered two-dimensional AQP0 crystals p248

Tamir Gonen, Yifan Cheng, Piotr Sliz, Yoko Hiroaki, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi, Stephen C. Harrison and Thomas Walz

doi:10.1038/nature04775


Corrigendum: Conservation of Y-linked genes during human evolution revealed by comparative sequencing in chimpanzee p248

Jennifer F. Hughes, Helen Skaletsky, Tatyana Pyntikova, Patrick J. Minx, Tina Graves, Steve Rozen, Richard K. Wilson and David C. Page

doi:10.1038/nature04776


Corrigendum: An acidic protein aligns magnetosomes along a filamentous structure in magnetotactic bacteria p248

André Scheffel, Manuela Gruska, Damien Faivre, Alexandros Linaroudis, Peter L. Graumann, Jürgen M. Plitzko and Dirk Schüler

doi:10.1038/nature04777


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Good in parts p249

Postdoc organization grades institutions

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7090-249a


Special Report

Talk about toxic p250

They arrive from other disciplines; they spread into distant fields. Toxicology is a voyage of discovery for scientists with diverse skills, including those of communication. Ricki Lewis gets them to open up about it.

Ricki Lewis

doi:10.1038/nj7090-250a


Career Views

Stephen Forrest, vice-president for research and William Gould Dow professor in electrical engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor p252

Engineer bounces between academia and industry

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7090-252a


What makes a good PhD student? p252

Some tips for PhD students.

Georgia Chenevix-Trench

doi:10.1038/nj7090-252b


Valuable diversions p252

Hobby horses for courses.

Katja Bargum

doi:10.1038/nj7090-252c


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Futures

The aching of Dion Harper p254

A case of phantom body syndrome.

Arthur Chrenkoff

doi:10.1038/441254a


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