Table of contents



Brown's budget briefing p581

A more cohesive biomedical research agency and simpler arrangements for measuring university performance feature in Britain's 2006 budget.


Astrobiology at ten p582

A young discipline holds promise yet.


Britannica attacks p582

... and we respond.



Research Highlights

Research highlights p584




Stem cells from testes: could it work? p586

Mice cells hint at potential for therapeutic strategy.

David Cyranoski


Space scientists get double reprieve p586

Astrobiology gets second wind.

Tony Reichhardt


US to rule on research patent p587

Supreme Court considers the law on natural phenomena.

Jacqueline Ruttimann


Sidelines p588


Scans suggest IQ scores reflect brain structure p588

Research results reignite intelligence controversy.

Jim Giles


Italians put science chief on the spot p588

National Research Council faces mounting protests.

Alison Abbott


Credit where credit's due p591

Disputes over who truly deserves the credit — or blame — for published work can result in bruised egos, damaged careers and court cases. Helen Pearson looks at ways to avoid fights over authorship.


More whale strandings are linked to sonar p593

Beached mammals may have tried to escape the noise.

Rex Dalton


News in brief p594


Corrections p595



News Features

Climate science: The son also rises p597

The two Roger Pielkes can be obstructionist pains in the neck, say their colleagues. So why is this likeable father–son pair such a welcome addition to the debate on global climate change? Kendall Powell clears the air.


Mitochondrial disease: Powerhouse of disease p600

Many of the genes affecting mitochondria — tiny energy suppliers of cells — reside in the cell nucleus. Nick Lane joins the hunt for these sequences that may underpin diseases such as diabetes.


See also: Editor's summary



Too little, too late? p603

Merger fever has finally reached Germany's drug firms. But can it cure the industry's woes? Alison Abbott reports.




Shared data are key to beating threat from flu p605

Steven Salzberg, Elodie Ghedin and David Spiro


Dogs can play useful role as sentinel hosts for disease p605

Sarah Cleaveland, Francois X. Meslin and Robert Breiman


Ecological society supports its African counterparts p605

John H. Lawton and Alastair H. Fitter


Populations who test drugs should benefit from them p605

Sanjay Basu, Jason Andrews and Duncan Smith-Rohrberg



Books and Arts

Blue-sky research p607

How scientists sought to explain the colour of the heavens.

Richard P. Wayne reviews Sky in a Bottle by Peter Pesic


The big freeze p608

Greg Dash reviews Ice: The Nature, the History and the Uses of an Astonishing Substance by Mariana Gosnell


A selfish element p609

James F. Crow reviews Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements by Austin Burt and Robert Trivers


Inside knowledge p609





Quantum mechanics in the brain p611

Does the enormous computing power of neurons mean consciousness can be explained within a purely neurobiological framework, or is there scope for quantum computation in the brain?

Christof Koch and Klaus Hepp



News and Views

Ecology: Green and pleasant trials p613

In the 1980s, a large lake — Lago Guri — was created as part of a hydroelectric project in Venezuela. Islands in the lake have enabled ecologists to test a fundamental hypothesis in their discipline.

Peter D. Moore


Planetary science: Saturn's bared mini-moons p614

Propeller-shaped structures seem to reveal the presence of moonlets, about 100 metres in diameter, embedded in Saturn's rings. This discovery adds to our picture of how the rings formed and are evolving.

Frank Spahn and Jürgen Schmidt


See also: Editor's summary

Neuroscience: Rewinding the memory record p615

How does the brain store sequences of experience? Clues come from brain recordings of rats running along a track. The animals' memories seem to be consolidated in an unexpected way as they rest between runs.

Laura L. Colgin and Edvard I. Moser


See also: Editor's summary

50 & 100 years ago p616


Quantum metrology: Size isn't everything p617

From probing living cells under a microscope to scanning the heavens for gravity waves, the limitations of precision measurements constrain our capacity to discover more about the world. But what exactly are those limits?

Samuel L. Braunstein


Materials science: Nanostructures in a new league p618

Aperiodic materials do not surrender details of their structure as readily as do their crystalline counterparts. The latest computational solution to this problem brings aspects of 'the beautiful game' into play.

John J. Rehr


See also: Editor's summary

X-Ray imaging: Soft focus p619

Ed Gerstner


See also: Editor's summary

Cognitive science: Brain development and IQ p619

If intelligence is partly determined by our genes, how does brain development relate to IQ? An attempt to answer this question measures the size of the outer layer of the brain, the cortex, with surprising results.

Richard Passingham


Environmental chemistry: Boiling up an acid plume p620

Tim Lincoln



Brief Communications

Biopolymers: Shape memory in spider draglines p621

The torsional properties of spider silk add to its list of remarkable physical credentials.

Olivier Emile, Albert Le Floch and Fritz Vollrath


See also: Editor's summary



Eukaryotic evolution, changes and challenges p623

T. Martin Embley and William Martin




Proteome survey reveals modularity of the yeast cell machinery p631

Anne-Claude Gavin, Patrick Aloy, Paola Grandi, Roland Krause, Markus Boesche, Martina Marzioch, Christina Rau, Lars Juhl Jensen, Sonja Bastuck, Birgit Dümpelfeld, Angela Edelmann, Marie-Anne Heurtier, Verena Hoffman, Christian Hoefert, Karin Klein, Manuela Hudak, Anne-Marie Michon, Malgorzata Schelder, Markus Schirle, Marita Remor, Tatjana Rudi, Sean Hooper, Andreas Bauer, Tewis Bouwmeester, Georg Casari, Gerard Drewes, Gitte Neubauer, Jens M. Rick, Bernhard Kuster, Peer Bork, Robert B. Russell and Giulio Superti-Furga


See also: Editor's summary

Global landscape of protein complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae p637

Nevan J. Krogan, Gerard Cagney, Haiyuan Yu, Gouqing Zhong, Xinghua Guo, Alexandr Ignatchenko, Joyce Li, Shuye Pu, Nira Datta, Aaron P. Tikuisis, Thanuja Punna, José M. Peregrín-Alvarez, Michael Shales, Xin Zhang, Michael Davey, Mark D. Robinson, Alberto Paccanaro, James E. Bray, Anthony Sheung, Bryan Beattie, Dawn P. Richards, Veronica Canadien, Atanas Lalev, Frank Mena, Peter Wong, Andrei Starostine, Myra M. Canete, James Vlasblom, Samuel Wu, Chris Orsi, Sean R. Collins, Shamanta Chandran, Robin Haw, Jennifer J. Rilstone, Kiran Gandi, Natalie J. Thompson, Gabe Musso, Peter St Onge, Shaun Ghanny, Mandy H. Y. Lam, Gareth Butland, Amin M. Altaf-Ul, Shigehiko Kanaya, Ali Shilatifard, Erin O'Shea, Jonathan S. Weissman, C. James Ingles, Timothy R. Hughes, John Parkinson, Mark Gerstein, Shoshana J. Wodak, Andrew Emili and Jack F. Greenblatt


See also: Editor's summary



The evolution of galaxies from primeval irregulars to present-day ellipticals p644

Masao Mori and Masayuki Umemura


See also: Editor's summary

100-metre-diameter moonlets in Saturn's A ring from observations of 'propeller' structures p648

Matthew S. Tiscareno, Joseph A. Burns, Matthew M. Hedman, Carolyn C. Porco, John W. Weiss, Luke Dones, Derek C. Richardson and Carl D. Murray


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Spahn & Schmidt

Controlled multiple reversals of a ratchet effect p651

Clécio C. de Souza Silva, Joris Van de Vondel, Mathieu Morelle and Victor V. Moshchalkov


Ab initio determination of solid-state nanostructure p655

P. Juhás, D. M. Cherba, P. M. Duxbury, W. F. Punch and S. J. L. Billinge


See also: Editor's summary

Melting in the Earth's deep upper mantle caused by carbon dioxide p659

Rajdeep Dasgupta and Marc M. Hirschmann


Altruism through beard chromodynamics p663

Vincent A. A. Jansen and Minus van Baalen


See also: Editor's summary

Chance and necessity in the evolution of minimal metabolic networks p667

Csaba Pál, Balázs Papp, Martin J. Lercher, Péter Csermely, Stephen G. Oliver and Laurence D. Hurst


See also: Editor's summary

Analysis of the DNA sequence and duplication history of human chromosome 15 p671

Michael C. Zody, Manuel Garber, Ted Sharpe, Sarah K. Young, Lee Rowen, Keith O'Neill, Charles A. Whittaker, Michael Kamal, Jean L. Chang, Christina A. Cuomo, Ken Dewar, Michael G. FitzGerald, Chinnappa D. Kodira, Anup Madan, Shizhen Qin, Xiaoping Yang, Nissa Abbasi, Amr Abouelleil, Harindra M. Arachchi, Lida Baradarani, Brian Birditt, Scott Bloom, Toby Bloom, Mark L. Borowsky, Jeremy Burke, Jonathan Butler, April Cook, Kurt DeArellano, David DeCaprio, Lester Dorris, III, Monica Dors, Evan E. Eichler, Reinhard Engels, Jessica Fahey, Peter Fleetwood, Cynthia Friedman, Gary Gearin, Jennifer L. Hall, Grace Hensley, Ericka Johnson, Charlien Jones, Asha Kamat, Amardeep Kaur, Devin P. Locke, Anuradha Madan, Glen Munson, David B. Jaffe, Annie Lui, Pendexter Macdonald, Evan Mauceli, Jerome W. Naylor, Ryan Nesbitt, Robert Nicol, Sinéad B. O'Leary, Amber Ratcliffe, Steven Rounsley, Xinwei She, Katherine M. B. Sneddon, Sandra Stewart, Carrie Sougnez, Sabrina M. Stone, Kerri Topham, Dascena Vincent, Shunguang Wang, Andrew R. Zimmer, Bruce W. Birren, Leroy Hood, Eric S. Lander and Chad Nusbaum


See also: Editor's summary

Intellectual ability and cortical development in children and adolescents p676

P. Shaw, D. Greenstein, J. Lerch, L. Clasen, R. Lenroot, N. Gogtay, A. Evans, J. Rapoport and J. Giedd


See also: Editor's summary

Reverse replay of behavioural sequences in hippocampal place cells during the awake state p680

David J. Foster and Matthew A. Wilson


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Colgin & Moser

A C. elegans stretch receptor neuron revealed by a mechanosensitive TRP channel homologue p684

Wei Li, Zhaoyang Feng, Paul W. Sternberg and X. Z. Shawn Xu


See also: Editor's summary

A silicon transporter in rice p688

Jian Feng Ma, Kazunori Tamai, Naoki Yamaji, Namiki Mitani, Saeko Konishi, Maki Katsuhara, Masaji Ishiguro, Yoshiko Murata and Masahiro Yano


See also: Editor's summary

Regulation of cancer cell migration and bone metastasis by RANKL p692

D. Holstead Jones, Tomoki Nakashima, Otto H. Sanchez, Ivona Kozieradzki, Svetlana V. Komarova, Ildiko Sarosi, Sean Morony, Evelyn Rubin, Renu Sarao, Carlo V. Hojilla, Vukoslav Komnenovic, Young-Yun Kong, Martin Schreiber, S. Jeffrey Dixon, Stephen M. Sims, Rama Khokha, Teiji Wada and Josef M. Penninger


Analysis of a RanGTP-regulated gradient in mitotic somatic cells p697

Petr Kaláb, Arnd Pralle, Ehud Y. Isacoff, Rebecca Heald and Karsten Weis


Oncogenic activity of Cdc6 through repression of the INK4/ARF locus p702

Susana Gonzalez, Peter Klatt, Sonia Delgado, Esther Conde, Fernando Lopez-Rios, Montserrat Sanchez-Cespedes, Juan Mendez, Francisco Antequera and Manuel Serrano


See also: Editor's summary

Retraction: Evidence for spin–charge separation in quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors p707

T. Lorenz, M. Hofmann, M. Grüninger, A. Freimuth, G. S. Uhrig, M. Dumm and M. Dressel


Retraction: Magnetic carbon p707

T. L. Makarova, B. Sundqvist, R. Höhne, P. Esquinazi, Y. Kopelevich, P. Scharff, V. Davydov, L. S. Kashevarova and A. V. Rakhmanina


Corrigendum: Psoriasis-like skin disease and arthritis caused by inducible epidermal deletion of Jun proteins p708

Rainer Zenz, Robert Eferl, Lukas Kenner, Lore Florin, Lars Hummerich, Denis Mehic, Harald Scheuch, Peter Angel, Erwin Tschachler and Erwin F. Wagner





Cracking the tax code p709

Double-checking tax status could mean a refund for some US postdocs.

Paul Smaglik


Careers and Recruitment

Written in the blood p710

Research into angiogenesis has survived the 1990s hype about an imminent cure for cancer, and shows promising results in many areas — but don't tell the newspapers, says Ricki Lewis.

Ricki Lewis


Career Views

Scott Hubbard, Carl Sagan chair for the study of life in the Universe, SETI Institute, Mountain View, California p712

Space scientist searches for life

Virginia Gewin


Emerging into the light p712

Matching mentors with protégés can jump-start careers

Lyn Holness


Off the straight and narrow p712

Final year finds grad student resisting tunnel vision

Katja Bargum




Party smart card p714

A transfer of allegiance.

Barrington J. Bayley


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