Letter

Nature 438, 1157-1161 (22 December 2005) | doi:10.1038/nature04300; Received 18 May 2005; Accepted 6 October 2005

Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae

Masayuki Machida1, Kiyoshi Asai2, Motoaki Sano1, Toshihiro Tanaka3, Toshitaka Kumagai2, Goro Terai2,20, Ken-Ichi Kusumoto4, Toshihide Arima5, Osamu Akita5, Yutaka Kashiwagi4, Keietsu Abe6, Katsuya Gomi6, Hiroyuki Horiuchi7, Katsuhiko Kitamoto7, Tetsuo Kobayashi8, Michio Takeuchi9, David W. Denning10, James E. Galagan11, William C. Nierman12,13, Jiujiang Yu14, David B. Archer15, Joan W. Bennett16, Deepak Bhatnagar14, Thomas E. Cleveland14, Natalie D. Fedorova12, Osamu Gotoh2, Hiroshi Horikawa3, Akira Hosoyama3, Masayuki Ichinomiya7, Rie Igarashi3, Kazuhiro Iwashita5, Praveen Rao Juvvadi7, Masashi Kato8, Yumiko Kato3, Taishin Kin2, Akira Kokubun3, Hiroshi Maeda6, Noriko Maeyama3, Jun-ichi Maruyama7, Hideki Nagasaki2, Tasuku Nakajima6, Ken Oda5, Kinya Okada2, Ian Paulsen12, Kazutoshi Sakamoto5, Toshihiko Sawano3, Mikio Takahashi3, Kumiko Takase1, Yasunobu Terabayashi1, Jennifer R. Wortman12, Osamu Yamada5, Youhei Yamagata6, Hideharu Anazawa17, Yoji Hata18, Yoshinao Koide19, Takashi Komori20, Yasuji Koyama21, Toshitaka Minetoki22, Sivasundaram Suharnan23, Akimitsu Tanaka24, Katsumi Isono3, Satoru Kuhara25, Naotake Ogasawara26 & Hisashi Kikuchi3

  1. Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan
  2. Computational Biology Research Center, AIST, 2-42 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064, Japan
  3. National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Nishihara 2-49-10, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-0066, Japan
  4. National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642, Japan
  5. National Research Institute of Brewing, 3-7-1 Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 739-0046, Japan
  6. Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8555, Japan
  7. The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
  8. Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
  9. Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Saiwai-cho 3-5-8, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-0054, Japan
  10. The University of Manchester, Manchester M23 9PL, UK
  11. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 320 Charles Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
  12. The Institute for Genomic Research, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
  13. The George Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2300 Eye Street NW, Washington DC 20037, USA
  14. USDA/ARS Southern Regional Research Center, 1100 Robert E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans, Louisiana 70124, USA
  15. School of Biology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
  16. Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, USA
  17. Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co. Ltd, 1-6-1 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8185, Japan
  18. Research Institute, Gekkeikan Sake Co. Ltd, 24 Shimotoba-koyanagi-cho, Fushimi-ku, Kyoto 612-8361, Japan
  19. Amano Enzyme Inc., 4-179-35, Sue-cho, Kakamigahara, Gifu 509-0108, Japan
  20. INTEC Web and Genome Informatics Corporation, 1-3-3 Shinsuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8637, Japan
  21. Kikkoman Corporation, 399 Noda, Noda, Chiba 278-0037, Japan
  22. Ozeki Co, Ltd., 4-9 Imadudezaike-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8227, Japan
  23. Axiohelix, 2-45, Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064, Japan
  24. Higeta Shoyu, Co. Ltd., 2-8 Chuo-cho, Choshi, Chiba 288-8680, Japan
  25. Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
  26. Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101, Japan

Correspondence to: Masayuki Machida1 Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.M. (Email: m.machida@aist.go.jp). The genome sequence has been submitted to DDBJ under the accession numbers AP007150–AP007177. Reprints and permissions.

The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, a fungus important for the production of traditional fermented foods and beverages in Japan, has been sequenced. The ability to secrete large amounts of proteins and the development of a transformation system1 have facilitated the use of A. oryzae in modern biotechnology2, 3, 4. Although both A. oryzae and Aspergillus flavus belong to the section Flavi of the subgenus Circumdati of Aspergillus, A. oryzae, unlike A. flavus, does not produce aflatoxin, and its long history of use in the food industry has proved its safety. Here we show that the 37-megabase (Mb) genome of A. oryzae contains 12,074 genes and is expanded by 7–9 Mb in comparison with the genomes of Aspergillus nidulans 5 and Aspergillus fumigatus 6. Comparison of the three aspergilli species revealed the presence of syntenic blocks and A. oryzae-specific blocks (lacking synteny with A. nidulans and A. fumigatus) in a mosaic manner throughout the genome of A. oryzae. The blocks of A. oryzae-specific sequence are enriched for genes involved in metabolism, particularly those for the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Specific expansion of genes for secretory hydrolytic enzymes, amino acid metabolism and amino acid/sugar uptake transporters supports the idea that A. oryzae is an ideal microorganism for fermentation.

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