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Unapproved tests on a chip p711

Prenatal genetic tests can now check for abnormalities in developing fetuses, but there is still no regulatory framework for them in the United States.


Launching a business p711

There's little evidence that commercial approaches can radically reduce the cost of getting into space.


Enough, already p712

No convincing case has been made for increasing the amount of plutonium held at a Californian lab.



Research Highlights

Research highlights p714




UK animal labs still under siege p716

Activists maintain pressure as building of Oxford lab resumes.

Tom Simonite and Jim Giles


Animal-rights militancy exported to US and Europe p717

Rise in extremist activity abroad 'aided by British expertise'.

Emma Marris and Tom Simonite


TV show gives research lobbyist a rat's-eye view of laboratory life p717

Pro-animal researcher runs the gauntlet of tests.


Sidelines p718


TV tests call into question cloner's stem-cell success p718

Korean star faces challenges over data.

David Cyranoski


Avian flu centre put under threat of closure p719

Indonesian authorities halt research at frontline station.

Declan Butler


Climate talks edge towards twin-track future p721

UN convention could complement Kyoto Protocol.

Amanda Haag


Prospect of stricter timekeeping alarms US biologists p721

Hackles are raised over revamped guidelines.

Emma Marris


German hostage was saving Iraq digs p722

Kidnapped archaeologist fought against looting.

Andreas von Bubnoff


Cowrie study strikes a blow for traditional taxonomy p722

DNA barcoding fails identification test.

Erika Check


Chairman explains Europe's research council p723


News in brief p724



News Features

Nonsense mutations: Running the red light p726

A trial drug encourages cells to ignore the signs that stop them making faulty proteins. Sound dangerous? Claire Ainsworth discovers that it could be a cure for genetic disease.


See also: Editor's summary

Neutron science: Back on track? p730

Next June, a $1.4-billion neutron-scattering facility will come online in the United States. Karen Fox finds out whether this machine really can breathe fresh life into the ageing Tennessee lab that is its home.


Fetal genetic testing: Screen test p733

A new technique could allow doctors to spot hundreds of potential genetic problems in unborn babies. But is it too soon to put it to use? Erika Check finds out.




Internet star shoots for a rocket revolution p736

A newcomer to the space arena claims that his start-up launch company can buck the trend of commercial failures. Tony Reichhardt reports.

Tony Reichhardt


In brief p737


Market Watch p737




Supplementary data need to be kept in public repositories p738

Carlos Santos, Judith Blake and David J. States


Turkish science needs more than membership of the EU p738

Mehmet Somel


Flu virus will not be sent in the regular US mail p738

Julie Louise Gerberding



Books and Arts

Physics ain't what it used to be p739

Science is venturing into areas where experimental verification simply isn't possible.

George Ellis reviews The Cosmic Landscape: String Theory and the Illusion of Intelligent Design


Pet project p740

Stephen J. O'Brien reviews The Dog and Its Genome


See also: Editor's summary

On top of the world p741


Exhibition: A close look at Darwin p741

Alan Packer reviews Darwin





The message of the quantum p743

Einstein challenged physics to describe "the real factual situation". But an understanding of the very concepts that he criticized a century ago may provide the best clues yet about reality 'out there'.

Anton Zeilinger



News and Views

Genomics: The dog has its day p745

Domestication and selective breeding have transformed wolves into the diversity of dogs we see today. The sequence of the genome of one breed adds to our understanding of mammalian biology and genome evolution.

Hans Ellegren


See also: Editor's summary

Water: Ins and outs of ice nucleation p746

Laboratory experiments point to a mechanism by which ice forms from supercooled water with surprising alacrity. Such a mechanism may help to explain ice formation in the atmosphere under certain conditions.

Srikanth Sastry


Cell biology: Relays at the membrane p747

The Wnt signalling pathway is a major route by which the cell conveys information from its exterior to the nucleus. A gap in the sequence of signalling proteins has now been filled.

Roel Nusse


Quantum information: Remember that photon p749

Storing single photons in atomic memories, and releasing them at a later time, is a required step on the way to quantum repeaters and long-distance quantum cryptography networks. This step has now been taken.

Philippe Grangier


See also: Editor's summary

50 & 100 years ago p750


Cancer biology: Emissaries set up new sites p750

The capacity of tumours to spread to other organs is one of their most dangerous attributes. A study of how cancer cells settle in new places shows that they send out envoys to prepare the ground for them.

Patricia S. Steeg


See also: Editor's summary

Obituary: Alastair Cameron (1925–2005) p752

Astrophysicist and planetary scientist.

John Wood



Brief Communications

Biomechanics: No force limit on greyhound sprint speed p753

Unlike human athletes, these dogs do not need to slow down when racing round a tight bend.

James R. Usherwood and Alan M. Wilson


See also: Editor's summary

Astrophysics: Is a doomsday catastrophe likely? p754

Max Tegmark and Nick Bostrom


Corrigendum p754



Brief Communications Arising

Planetary science: Are there active glaciers on Mars? pE9

Alan R. Gillespie, David R. Montgomery and Amit Mushkin


See also: Editor's summary

Planetary science: Are there active glaciers on Mars? (Reply) pE10

J. W. Head, G. Neukum, R. Jaumann, H. Hiesinger, E. Hauber, M. Carr, P. Masson, B. Foing, H. Hoffmann, M. Kreslavsky, S. Werner, S. Milkovich, S. van Gasselt and The HRSC Co-Investigator Team



Huygens News & Views

Planetary science: Huygens rediscovers Titan p756

The first analyses of data sent by the Huygens probe from Saturn's largest moon Titan are flooding in. They paint a picture of a 'Peter Pan' world — potentially like Earth, but with its development frozen at an early stage.

Tobias Owen


See also: Editor's summary


Huygens Articles

An overview of the descent and landing of the Huygens probe on Titan p758

Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Olivier Witasse, Claudio Sollazzo, Thierry Blancquaert, Patrice Couzin, Anne-Marie Schipper, Jeremy B. Jones, Dennis L. Matson, Leonid I. Gurvits, David H. Atkinson, Bobby Kazeminejad and Miguel Pérez-Ayúcar


See also: Editor's summary | Authors

Rain, winds and haze during the Huygens probe's descent to Titan's surface p765

M. G. Tomasko, B. Archinal, T. Becker, B. Bézard, M. Bushroe, M. Combes, D. Cook, A. Coustenis, C. de Bergh, L. E. Dafoe, L. Doose, S. Douté, A. Eibl, S. Engel, F. Gliem, B. Grieger, K. Holso, E. Howington-Kraus, E. Karkoschka, H. U. Keller, R. Kirk, R. Kramm, M. Küppers, P. Lanagan, E. Lellouch, M. Lemmon, J. Lunine, E. McFarlane, J. Moores, G. M. Prout, B. Rizk, M. Rosiek, P. Rueffer, S. E. Schröder, B. Schmitt, C. See, P. Smith, L. Soderblom, N. Thomas and R. West


See also: Editor's summary | Authors

The abundances of constituents of Titan's atmosphere from the GCMS instrument on the Huygens probe p779

H. B. Niemann, S. K. Atreya, S. J. Bauer, G. R. Carignan, J. E. Demick, R. L. Frost, D. Gautier, J. A. Haberman, D. N. Harpold, D. M. Hunten, G. Israel, J. I. Lunine, W. T. Kasprzak, T. C. Owen, M. Paulkovich, F. Raulin, E. Raaen and S. H. Way


See also: Editor's summary | Authors

In situ measurements of the physical characteristics of Titan's environment p785

M. Fulchignoni, F. Ferri, F. Angrilli, A. J. Ball, A. Bar-Nun, M. A. Barucci, C. Bettanini, G. Bianchini, W. Borucki, G. Colombatti, M. Coradini, A. Coustenis, S. Debei, P. Falkner, G. Fanti, E. Flamini, V. Gaborit, R. Grard, M. Hamelin, A. M. Harri, B. Hathi, I. Jernej, M. R. Leese, A. Lehto, P. F. Lion Stoppato, J. J. López-Moreno, T. Mäkinen, J. A. M. McDonnell, C. P. McKay, G. Molina-Cuberos, F. M. Neubauer, V. Pirronello, R. Rodrigo, B. Saggin, K. Schwingenschuh, A. Seiff, F. Simões, H. Svedhem, T. Tokano, M. C. Towner, R. Trautner, P. Withers and J. C. Zarnecki


See also: Editor's summary | Authors

A soft solid surface on Titan as revealed by the Huygens Surface Science Package p792

John C. Zarnecki, Mark R. Leese, Brijen Hathi, Andrew J. Ball, Axel Hagermann, Martin C. Towner, Ralph D. Lorenz, J. Anthony M. McDonnell, Simon F. Green, Manish R. Patel, Timothy J. Ringrose, Philip D. Rosenberg, Karl R. Atkinson, Mark D. Paton, Marek Banaszkiewicz, Benton C. Clark, Francesca Ferri, Marcello Fulchignoni, Nadeem A. L. Ghafoor, Günter Kargl, Håkan Svedhem, John Delderfield, Manuel Grande, David J. Parker, Peter G. Challenor and John E. Geake


See also: Editor's summary | Authors


Huygens Letters

Complex organic matter in Titan's atmospheric aerosols from in situ pyrolysis and analysis p796

G. Israël, C. Szopa, F. Raulin, M. Cabane, H. B. Niemann, S. K. Atreya, S. J. Bauer, J.-F. Brun, E. Chassefière, P. Coll, E. Condé, D. Coscia, A. Hauchecorne, P. Millian, M.-J. Nguyen, T. Owen, W. Riedler, R. E. Samuelson, J.-M. Siguier, M. Steller, R. Sternberg and C. Vidal-Madjar


See also: Editor's summary | Authors

The vertical profile of winds on Titan p800

M. K. Bird, M. Allison, S. W. Asmar, D. H. Atkinson, I. M. Avruch, R. Dutta-Roy, Y. Dzierma, P. Edenhofer, W. M. Folkner, L. I. Gurvits, D. V. Johnston, D. Plettemeier, S. V. Pogrebenko, R. A. Preston and G. L. Tyler


See also: Editor's summary | Authors



Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog p803

Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Claire M Wade, Tarjei S. Mikkelsen, Elinor K. Karlsson, David B. Jaffe, Michael Kamal, Michele Clamp, Jean L. Chang, Edward J. Kulbokas, III, Michael C. Zody, Evan Mauceli, Xiaohui Xie, Matthew Breen, Robert K. Wayne, Elaine A. Ostrander, Chris P. Ponting, Francis Galibert, Douglas R. Smith, Pieter J. deJong, Ewen Kirkness, Pablo Alvarez, Tara Biagi, William Brockman, Jonathan Butler, Chee-Wye Chin, April Cook, James Cuff, Mark J. Daly, David DeCaprio, Sante Gnerre, Manfred Grabherr, Manolis Kellis, Michael Kleber, Carolyne Bardeleben, Leo Goodstadt, Andreas Heger, Christophe Hitte, Lisa Kim, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Heidi G. Parker, John P. Pollinger, Stephen M. J. Searle, Nathan B. Sutter, Rachael Thomas and Caleb Webber, Broad Sequencing Platform members and Eric S. Lander


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Ellegren

VEGFR1-positive haematopoietic bone marrow progenitors initiate the pre-metastatic niche p820

Rosandra N. Kaplan, Rebecca D. Riba, Stergios Zacharoulis, Anna H. Bramley, Loïc Vincent, Carla Costa, Daniel D. MacDonald, David K. Jin, Koji Shido, Scott A. Kerns, Zhenping Zhu, Daniel Hicklin, Yan Wu, Jeffrey L. Port, Nasser Altorki, Elisa R. Port, Davide Ruggero, Sergey V. Shmelkov, Kristian K. Jensen, Shahin Rafii and David Lyden


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Steeg



Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles p828

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk and H. J. Kimble


See also: Editor's summary

Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories p833

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy and A. Kuzmich


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Grangier

Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses p837

M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov and M. D. Lukin


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Grangier

A lithospheric instability origin for Columbia River flood basalts and Wallowa Mountains uplift in northeast Oregon p842

T. C. Hales, D. L. Abt, E. D. Humphreys and J. J. Roering


Determinants of woody cover in African savannas p846

Mahesh Sankaran, Niall P. Hanan, Robert J. Scholes, Jayashree Ratnam, David J. Augustine, Brian S. Cade, Jacques Gignoux, Steven I. Higgins, Xavier Le Roux, Fulco Ludwig, Jonas Ardo, Feetham Banyikwa, Andries Bronn, Gabriela Bucini, Kelly K. Caylor, Michael B. Coughenour, Alioune Diouf, Wellington Ekaya, Christie J. Feral, Edmund C. February, Peter G. H. Frost, Pierre Hiernaux, Halszka Hrabar, Kristine L. Metzger, Herbert H. T. Prins, Susan Ringrose, William Sea, Jörg Tews, Jeff Worden and Nick Zambatis


See also: Editor's summary | Authors

The phylogenetic position of the 'giant deer' Megaloceros giganteus p850

A. M. Lister, C. J. Edwards, D. A. W. Nock, M. Bunce, I. A. van Pijlen, D. G. Bradley, M. G. Thomas and I. Barnes


See also: Editor's summary

Morphine reward in dopamine-deficient mice p854

Thomas S. Hnasko, Bethany N. Sotak and Richard D. Palmiter


See also: Editor's summary | Authors

BMP inhibition-driven regulation of six-3 underlies induction of newt lens regeneration p858

Matthew W. Grogg, Mindy K. Call, Mitsumasa Okamoto, M. Natalia Vergara, Katia Del Rio-Tsonis and Panagiotis A. Tsonis


A colonization factor links Vibrio cholerae environmental survival and human infection p863

Thomas J. Kirn, Brooke A. Jude and Ronald K. Taylor


See also: Editor's summary

Casein kinase 1 bold gamma couples Wnt receptor activation to cytoplasmic signal transduction p867

Gary Davidson, Wei Wu, Jinlong Shen, Josipa Bilic, Ursula Fenger, Peter Stannek, Andrei Glinka and Christof Niehrs


See also: News and Views by Nusse

A dual-kinase mechanism for Wnt co-receptor phosphorylation and activation p873

Xin Zeng, Keiko Tamai, Brad Doble, Shitao Li, He Huang, Raymond Habas, Heidi Okamura, Jim Woodgett and Xi He


See also: News and Views by Nusse

The importance of sequence diversity in the aggregation and evolution of proteins p878

Caroline F. Wright, Sarah A. Teichmann, Jane Clarke and Christopher M. Dobson


See also: Editor's summary




Seeking soft skills p883

Career panel points to off-the-bench skills.

Paul Smaglik


Postdocs and Students

Toddlers, teens and test tubes p884

Young careers and young families can leave investigators feeling stretched. Kendall Powell finds out how to keep the two from clashing.

Kendall Powell


Career Views

Graduate journal - Year-End Review: A change of outlook

From tough decisions and unexpected complications come new perspectives and opportunities.

Anne Margaret Lee


Graduate journal - Year-End Review: Evaluating a career decision

A switch from medicine to research brings reflections on the value of medical education, the freedom of science and the constants that help one survive graduate school.

Tobias Langenhan




Transport of delight p888

The highs and lows of commuting.

Roland Denison


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