Table of contents

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Waking up to the importance of sleep p1207

A growing chasm separates the growing scientific understanding of sleep, and the widespread public assumption that it just doesn't matter.

doi: 10.1038/4371207a

Is the city safe? p1207

The Environmental Protection Agency is ducking a frank assessment of New Orleans after Katrina.

doi: 10.1038/4371207b

Free tips p1208

The National Academies offers guidance to keep the United States internationally competitive.

doi: 10.1038/4371208a


Research Highlights

Research highlights p1210

doi: 10.1038/4371210a



Migration threatens to send flu south p1212

Researchers fear that the bird flu virus's next stop will be Africa, where dependence on poultry means that the consequences could be even worse than in southeast Asia. Tom Simonite reports.

doi: 10.1038/4371212a

Sidelines p1214

doi: 10.1038/4371214a

Trial aims to measure social effects of choosing babies' sex p1214

Study will follow selections of couples undergoing fertility treatment.

Erika Check

doi: 10.1038/4371214b

Europe revamps visa rules to attract world's best minds p1215

'Scientist visas' aim to end lengthy delays.

Alison Abbott

doi: 10.1038/4371215a

Advisers knock Katrina health tests p1216

Environmental Protection Agency criticized over response to New Orleans disaster.

Emma Marris

doi: 10.1038/4371216a

Ministers agree to act on warnings of soaring temperatures in Africa p1217

Researchers highlight threat posed by global warming.

Michael Cherry

doi: 10.1038/4371217a

Graphic detail: Twelve years of nuclear traffic p1218

Nuclear agency reveals capture of weapons-grade material across Europe.

doi: 10.1038/4371218a

News in brief p1219

doi: 10.1038/4371219a


News Features

Neuroscience: While you were sleeping p1220

The flailing limbs of someone acting out their dreams in bed may not seem the obvious place to seek a cure for Parkinson's disease. But, as Alison Abbott finds out, this sleep disorder is shedding fresh light on the development of neurodegenerative disorders.

doi: 10.1038/4371220a

See also: Editor's summary

Physics: Far from the frontier p1224

Ignoring the mainstream, physicist Seth Putterman has a knack for bringing long-forgotten mysteries back to the fore. Geoff Brumfiel discovers some of the payoffs, and perils, of being a fiercely independent researcher.

doi: 10.1038/4371224a

Microbiology: Pipe dreams p1227

It's a bizarre, toxin-filled microbe that could clean up sewage plants across the globe. Helen Pilcher gets on the trail of the anammox bacterium.

doi: 10.1038/4371227a



Patent reform prompts intellectual tug-of-war p1230

Reform of the patent process in the United States is shaping up as a battle of wills between the software and biotechnology industries. The outcome has global consequences, as Emma Marris reports.

doi: 10.1038/4371230a

In brief p1231

doi: 10.1038/4371231a

Market watch p1231

Roxanne Khamsi

doi: 10.1038/4371231b



Call for a cull of pointlessly different reference styles p1232

Errol C. Friedberg

doi: 10.1038/4371232a

Noting Croats' difference from other Slavs isn't racist p1232

Ognjen Çuliç

doi: 10.1038/4371232b

Internet forest-watchers a new force for conservation p1232

Fernando Manuel Ramos

doi: 10.1038/4371232c

Later results don't confirm antidepressant suicide link p1232

Tamar Wohlfarth and Jitschak Storosum

doi: 10.1038/4371232d



Deeper into the genome p1233

The next large-scale human genome project after HapMap should catalogue inherited variation in the general population that directly affects gene function, argues Richard Gibbs.

doi: 10.1038/4371233a


Books and Arts

Power for life p1235

Did the humble mitochondrion — the powerhouse of the cell — play a key role in the evolution of life?

John F. Allen reviews Power, Sex, Suicide: Mitochondria and the Meaning of Life by Nick Lane

doi: 10.1038/4371235a

Theatre: Two exiles p1236

Alan Packer

doi: 10.1038/4371236a

Relative beginners p1237

Derek Raine reviews It's About Time: Understanding Einstein's Relativityby N. David Mermin

doi: 10.1038/4371237a

Little wonder p1237

doi: 10.1038/4371237b

Science in culture: Inventing an icon p1238

Hans Joachim Schellnhuber's map of global 'tipping points' in climate change.

Martin Kemp

doi: 10.1038/4371238a




Exploring life's sweet spot p1239

Glycomics: like proteins and nucleic acids, carbohydrates have essential roles in the cell, but the tools to synthesize and analyse this third class of biopolymer have, until recently, lagged far behind.

Peter H. Seeberger

doi: 10.1038/4371239a


News and Views

Genomics: Understanding human diversity p1241

The first edition of a massive catalogue of human genetic variation is now complete. The long-term task is to translate these data into an understanding of the effects of that variation on human health.

David B. Goldstein and Gianpiero L. Cavalleri

doi: 10.1038/4371241a

See also: Editor's summary

Chemistry: A cleaner way to nylon? p1243

The polymer nylon-6 is much in demand. An innovation in producing the precursor molecule, epsilon-caprolactam, involves a one-step process that is environmentally benign and may be scaled up for bulk production.

Robert Mokaya and Martyn Poliakoff

doi: 10.1038/4371243a

Solid-state physics: Silicon's new shine p1244

The semiconductor material used in computing systems does not emit light. But a silicon-based structure that can modulate light from an independent source might aid the marriage of optical and electronic components.

Gareth Parry

doi: 10.1038/4371244a

See also: Editor's summary

Biophysics: Helicase snaps back p1245

Helicase enzymes can move along DNA or RNA, unravelling the helices as they go. But simply travelling along a nucleic acid in one direction seems not to be enough for some of these molecular motors.

Eckhard Jankowsky

doi: 10.1038/4371245a

Materials science: Changing face of the chameleon p1246

Chalcogenide materials form the basis of CD and DVD technologies. But an identity crisis looms in the wider field: what role do atomic reconfiguration, electronic processes and ionic movement play in these materials?

A. Lindsay Greer and Neil Mathur

doi: 10.1038/4371246a

Cell biology: Helices sculpt membrane p1247

Many proteins are carried within cells in bubble-like sacs. These are pinched off from membranes inside the cell, and it seems that the Sar1p protein is key in both starting and finishing this budding process.

Guillaume Drin and Bruno Antonny

doi: 10.1038/4371247a

50 & 100 years ago p1247

doi: 10.1038/4371247b

Mycology: The whiff of danger p1248

Tim Lincoln

doi: 10.1038/4371248a

Solid-state physics: Spin in the slow lane p1249

Electrons were until recently thought to transport their charge and spin equally freely through metals and semiconductors. Now it seems that spin can lag considerably behind charge.

Bart van Wees

doi: 10.1038/4371249a


Brief Communications

Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns p1251

These scientists prioritized their replies to letters in the same way that people rate their e-mails today.

João Gama Oliveira and Albert-László Barabási

doi: 10.1038/4371251a

See also: Editor's summary

Protein glycosylation: Chaperone mutation in Tn syndrome p1252

Tongzhong Ju and Richard D. Cummings

doi: 10.1038/4371252a


Brief Communications Arising

Sporting contests: Seeing red? Putting sportswear in context pE10

Candy Rowe, Julie M. Harris and S. Craig Roberts

doi: 10.1038/nature04306

Sporting contests: Seeing red? Putting sportswear in context (reply) pE10

Robert A. Barton and Russell A. Hill

doi: 10.1038/nature04307


Insight: Sleep

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Insight: Sleep

Introduction: Sleep p1253

John Spiro

doi: 10.1038/4371253a

Sleep is of the brain, by the brain and for the brain p1254

J. Allan Hobson

doi: 10.1038/nature04283

Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms p1257

Clifford B. Saper, Thomas E. Scammell and Jun Lu

doi: 10.1038/nature04284

Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep p1264

Jerome M. Siegel

doi: 10.1038/nature04285

Sleep-dependent memory consolidation p1272

Robert Stickgold

doi: 10.1038/nature04286

Insights from studying human sleep disorders p1279

Mark W. Mahowald and Carlos H. Schenck

doi: 10.1038/nature04287

See also: Editor's summary

What are the memory sources of dreaming? p1286

Tore A. Nielsen and Philippe Stenstrom

doi: 10.1038/nature04288



Evolution of indirect reciprocity p1291

Martin A. Nowak and Karl Sigmund

doi: 10.1038/nature04131



A haplotype map of the human genome p1299

The International HapMap Consortium

doi: 10.1038/nature04226

See also: Editor's summary

Repetitive shuttling of a motor protein on DNA p1321

Sua Myong, Ivan Rasnik, Chirlmin Joo, Timothy M. Lohman and Taekjip Ha

doi: 10.1038/nature04049



How Prometheus creates structure in Saturn's F ring p1326

Carl D. Murray, Carlos Chavez, Kevin Beurle, Nick Cooper, Michael W. Evans, Joseph A. Burns and Carolyn C. Porco

doi: 10.1038/nature04212

See also: Editor's summary

Observation of spin Coulomb drag in a two-dimensional electron gas p1330

C. P. Weber, N. Gedik, J. E. Moore, J. Orenstein, J. Stephens and D. D. Awschalom

doi: 10.1038/nature04206

Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon p1334

Yu-Hsuan Kuo, Yong Kyu Lee, Yangsi Ge, Shen Ren, Jonathan E. Roth, Theodore I. Kamins, David A. B. Miller and James S. Harris

doi: 10.1038/nature04204

See also: Editor's summary

Unidirectional molecular motor on a gold surface p1337

Richard A. van Delden, Matthijs K. J. ter Wiel, Michael M. Pollard, Javier Vicario, Nagatoshi Koumura and Ben L. Feringa

doi: 10.1038/nature04127

Low-latitude seasonality of Cretaceous temperatures in warm and cold episodes p1341

Thomas Steuber, Markus Rauch, Jean-Pierre Masse, Joris Graaf and Matthias Malkoc caron

doi: 10.1038/nature04096

See also: Editor's summary

Cooling of the Earth and core formation after the giant impact p1345

Bernard J. Wood and Alex N. Halliday

doi: 10.1038/nature04129

See also: Editor's summary

Mammal-like muscles power swimming in a cold-water shark p1349

Diego Bernal, Jeanine M. Donley, Robert E. Shadwick and Douglas A. Syme

doi: 10.1038/nature04007

See also: Editor's summary

Reinforcement drives rapid allopatric speciation p1353

Conrad J. Hoskin, Megan Higgie, Keith R. McDonald and Craig Moritz

doi: 10.1038/nature04004

See also: Editor's summary

Chimpanzees are indifferent to the welfare of unrelated group members p1357

Joan B. Silk, Sarah F. Brosnan, Jennifer Vonk, Joseph Henrich, Daniel J. Povinelli, Amanda S. Richardson, Susan P. Lambeth, Jenny Mascaro and Steven J. Schapiro

doi: 10.1038/nature04243

See also: Editor's summary

Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak p1360

James A. Fraser, Steven S. Giles, Emily C. Wenink, Scarlett G. Geunes-Boyer, Jo Rae Wright, Stephanie Diezmann, Andria Allen, Jason E. Stajich, Fred S. Dietrich, John R. Perfect and Joseph Heitman

doi: 10.1038/nature04220

See also: Editor's summary

Mapping determinants of human gene expression by regional and genome-wide association p1365

Vivian G. Cheung, Richard S. Spielman, Kathryn G. Ewens, Teresa M. Weber, Michael Morley and Joshua T. Burdick

doi: 10.1038/nature04244

See also: Editor's summary

Wnt signalling regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis p1370

Dieter-Chichung Lie, Sophia A. Colamarino, Hong-Jun Song, Laurent Désiré, Helena Mira, Antonella Consiglio, Edward S. Lein, Sebastian Jessberger, Heather Lansford, Alejandro R. Dearie and Fred H. Gage

doi: 10.1038/nature04108

See also: Editor's summary

Regulation of Lethal giant larvae by Dishevelled p1376

Gretchen L. Dollar, Ursula Weber, Marek Mlodzik and Sergei Y. Sokol

doi: 10.1038/nature04116

A heterodimeric complex that promotes the assembly of mammalian 20S proteasomes p1381

Yuko Hirano, Klavs B. Hendil, Hideki Yashiroda, Shun-ichiro Iemura, Ryoichi Nagane, Yusaku Hioki, Tohru Natsume, Keiji Tanaka and Shigeo Murata

doi: 10.1038/nature04106

The histone H3.3 chaperone HIRA is essential for chromatin assembly in the male pronucleus p1386

Benjamin Loppin, Emilie Bonnefoy, Caroline Anselme, Anne Laurençon, Timothy L. Karr and Pierre Couble

doi: 10.1038/nature04059




The changing face of China p1391

Swedish universities open offices to exchange science with China

Paul Smaglik


Careers and Recruitment

A defensive strategy p1392

Fearing that it will be the target of future bioterrorist attacks, the United States has been ploughing huge amounts of money into biodefence. The result is a reinvigorated market for microbiologists. Corie Lok reports.

Corie Lok


Career Views

Nancy Kelley, senior vice-president, Alexandria Real Estate Equities, Boston, Massachusetts p1394

Woman travels from policy to law to scientific real-estate mogul

Paul Smaglik


Scientists & Societies p1394

ACS finds success with an informal job-hunt forum.

Charles Casey & Jerry Bell


Graduate journal: The worry of success p1394

New PhD discovers first job brings fresh anxieties

Jason Underwood




Stranger in the night p1396

The journey of a lifetime.

Salvador Nogueira

doi: 10.1038/4371396a

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