Table of contents



Every little helps p1065

Novel techniques that could help to make human embryonic stem-cell research morally acceptable will not immediately defuse the ethical debate over the work.

doi: 10.1038/4371065a

An unhealthy practice p1065

Prescription guidelines should not be written by people with financial conflicts of interest.

doi: 10.1038/4371065b

Grand ambition p1066

Germany's coalition government is well placed to reform the country's scientific system.

doi: 10.1038/4371066a


Research Highlights

Research highlights p1068

doi: 10.1038/4371068a



Cash interests taint drug advice p1070

Nature exposes close ties between scientists and manufacturers.

Rosie Taylor and Jim Giles

doi: 10.1038/4371070a

Express delivery to Venus p1071

Europe readies its first mission to Earth's neighbour.

Tony Reichhardt

doi: 10.1038/4371071a

Quake aid hampered by ban on web shots p1072

Open-access satellite images are revolutionizing responses to disasters. Yet the government of Pakistan has forced aid agencies to remove pictures of earthquake devastation from the Internet.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/4371072a

Biologists forced to reassess embryo test p1075

Screening technique for genetic abnormalities under scrutiny.

Erika Check

doi: 10.1038/4371075a

China launches plans for space exploration as taikonauts touch down p1075

Safe landing and heroes welcome after five-day trip in space.

Mark Peplow and Tony Reichhardt

doi: 10.1038/4371075b

'Ethical' routes to stem cells highlight political divide p1076

Novel methods seek to avoid destruction of viable embryos.

Carina Dennis and Erika Check

doi: 10.1038/4371072b

See also: Editor's summary

Sidelines p1076

doi: 10.1038/4371076a

Korea launches network to share cloning information p1077

Government sets up international hub for stem-cell technology.

Carina Dennis

doi: 10.1038/4371077a

News in brief p1078

doi: 10.1038/4371078a

Corrections p1079

doi: 10.1038/4371079a

Clarification p1079

doi: 10.1038/4371079b


News Features

Astrobiology: Life at the cutting edge p1080

Biologists, planetary scientists and engineers have gathered in southern Spain to test a robotic drill. They hope some day to probe for life beneath the surface of Mars. Jenny Hogan investigates.

doi: 10.1038/4371080a

Human genome: Patchwork people p1084

For years it was assumed that tiny differences in our genetic make-up gave us our individual traits. Now it seems that those characteristics are caused by rearrangements of large chunks of our DNA — variations that could be the key to understanding disease. Erika Check investigates.

doi: 10.1038/4371084a

See also: Editor's summary



Venture capitalists tackle Chinese hurdles p1087

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/4371087a

In brief p1087

doi: 10.1038/4371087b



Don't underestimate the death rate from Chernobyl p1089

Timothy A. Mousseau, Neal Nelson and V. Shestopalov

doi: 10.1038/4371089a

Media reports: call for a working party is unrealistic p1089

Jonathan Cowie

doi: 10.1038/4371089b

Main effect of bureaucracy is to reduce productivity p1089

Stephen Moss

doi: 10.1038/4371089c

Concern at animal research should not be dismissed p1089

Jacqueline Zupp

doi: 10.1038/4371089d


Books and Arts

Oppenheimer: the opera p1091

A musical treatment of the development of the atomic bomb raises questions still relevant today.

Philip Campbell reviews Doctor Atomic composed by John Adams, directed by Peter Sellars. San Francisco Opera world premiere, 1 October 2005

doi: 10.1038/4371091a

See also: Editor's summary

Mathematical musings p1092

Timothy Gowers reviews Euclid in the Rainforest: Discovering Universal Truth in Logic and Math by Joseph Mazur

doi: 10.1038/4371092a

Up close and colourful p1092

doi: 10.1038/4371092b

Mixed reactions p1093

Pierluigi Nicotera reviews The Poison Paradox: Chemicals as Friends and Foes by John Timbrell

doi: 10.1038/4371093a



An explorer and surveyor p1095

Hermann Weyl made prescient contributions to both mathematics and physics, but also strove to understand reality as a whole.

Frank Wilczek

doi: 10.1038/4371095a


News and Views

Molecular biology: DNA twists and flips p1097

DNA can shape itself into many forms to achieve its purposes in life. The crystal structure of the junction between two of its forms provides insight into how DNA might accomplish some of these acrobatics.

Richard R. Sinden

doi: 10.1038/4371097a

See also: Editor's summary

Catalysis: Gold rush p1098

The chemical industry would be transformed if selective oxidation of hydrocarbons could be achieved efficiently using cheap and clean oxygen from the air. Doing that with gold as a catalyst is a method gaining in allure.

Masatake Haruta

doi: 10.1038/4371098a

See also: Editor's summary

Evolution: Along came a sea spider p1099

An investigation of brain development in sea spiders provides hints about how the earliest arthropod head evolved. These observations are bound to provoke controversy in an already acrimonious field.

Graham E. Budd and Maximilian J. Telford

doi: 10.1038/4371099a

See also: Editor's summary

50 & 100 years ago p1101

doi: 10.1038/4371101a

Quantum physics: Atom waves in passing p1102

Matter-wave interferometers are unique tools for exposing particles acting like waves — one of the stranger facets of quantum theory. They can even measure the quickening of an atom's 'pulse' as it flies past a surface.

Maarten DeKieviet and Joerg Schmiedmayer

doi: 10.1038/4371102a

Cell biology: A BID for the pathway p1103

Cells have many ways of coping with damage to their DNA, but how are these all coordinated? It seems that BID — a regulator of programmed cell death — stands at the crossroads of several damage-response pathways.

Michael B. Kastan

doi: 10.1038/4371103a

Astronomy: Odd company p1105

Black holes cannot yet be seen directly, but their influence on surrounding stars is allowing them to be identified with increasing certainty. That those stars are there to be influenced, though, raises other questions.

Fulvio Melia

doi: 10.1038/4371105a

Evolutionary biology: Fruitfly genome is not junk p1106

A comparison of two fruitfly genomes shows that much of their non-coding DNA is controlled by either negative or positive selection, dealing a double blow to the neutral theory of molecular evolution.

Alexey S. Kondrashov

doi: 10.1038/4371106a

See also: Editor's summary


Brief Communications

Intercepting the first rat ashore p1107

Keeping islands free of rats may be harder with isolated invaders as these evade conventional trapping.

James C. Russell, David R. Towns, Sandra H. Anderson and Mick N. Clout

doi: 10.1038/4371107a

Avian flu: Isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus p1108

Q. Mai Le, Maki Kiso, Kazuhiko Someya, Yuko T. Sakai, T. Hien Nguyen, Khan H. L. Nguyen, N. Dinh Pham, Ha H. Ngyen, Shinya Yamada, Yukiko Muramoto, Taisuke Horimoto, Ayato Takada, Hideo Goto, Takashi Suzuki, Yasuo Suzuki and Yoshihiro Kawaoka

doi: 10.1038/4371108a

See also: Editor's summary



The CREB coactivator TORC2 is a key regulator of fasting glucose metabolism p1109

Seung-Hoi Koo, Lawrence Flechner, Ling Qi, Xinmin Zhang, Robert A. Screaton, Shawn Jeffries, Susan Hedrick, Wu Xu, Fayçal Boussouar, Paul Brindle, Hiroshi Takemori and Marc Montminy

doi: 10.1038/nature03967

See also: Editor's summary

Rebuilt AAA + motors reveal operating principles for ATP-fuelled machines p1115

Andreas Martin, Tania A. Baker and Robert T. Sauer

doi: 10.1038/nature04031

See also: Editor's summary | Authors



A 'dry' condensation origin for circumstellar carbonates p1121

Alice Toppani, François Robert, Guy Libourel, Philippe de Donato, Odile Barres, Louis d'Hendecourt and Jaafar Ghanbaja

doi: 10.1038/nature04128

See also: Editor's summary

Secondary craters on Europa and implications for cratered surfaces p1125

Edward B. Bierhaus, Clark R. Chapman and William J. Merline

doi: 10.1038/nature04069

See also: Editor's summary | Authors

Enhancing semiconductor device performance using ordered dopant arrays p1128

Takahiro Shinada, Shintaro Okamoto, Takahiro Kobayashi and Iwao Ohdomari

doi: 10.1038/nature04086

See also: Editor's summary

Tunable gold catalysts for selective hydrocarbon oxidation under mild conditions p1132

Mathew D. Hughes, Yi-Jun Xu, Patrick Jenkins, Paul McMorn, Philip Landon, Dan I. Enache, Albert F. Carley, Gary A. Attard, Graham J. Hutchings, Frank King, E. Hugh Stitt, Peter Johnston, Ken Griffin and Christopher J. Kiely

doi: 10.1038/nature04190

See also: Editor's summary

Thermochemical structures beneath Africa and the Pacific Ocean p1136

Allen K. McNamara and Shijie Zhong

doi: 10.1038/nature04066

Helium solubility in olivine and implications for high 3He/4He in ocean island basalts p1140

Stephen W. Parman, Mark D. Kurz, Stanley R. Hart and Timothy L. Grove

doi: 10.1038/nature04215

Neuroanatomy of sea spiders implies an appendicular origin of the protocerebral segment p1144

Amy Maxmen, William E. Browne, Mark Q. Martindale and Gonzalo Giribet

doi: 10.1038/nature03984

See also: Editor's summary

Adaptive evolution of non-coding DNA in Drosophila p1149

Peter Andolfatto

doi: 10.1038/nature04107

See also: Editor's summary

Natural selection on protein-coding genes in the human genome p1153

Carlos D. Bustamante, Adi Fledel-Alon, Scott Williamson, Rasmus Nielsen, Melissa Todd Hubisz, Stephen Glanowski, David M. Tanenbaum, Thomas J. White, John J. Sninsky, Ryan D. Hernandez, Daniel Civello, Mark D. Adams, Michele Cargill and Andrew G. Clark

doi: 10.1038/nature04240

See also: Editor's summary

Activity of striatal neurons reflects dynamic encoding and recoding of procedural memories p1158

Terra D. Barnes, Yasuo Kubota, Dan Hu, Dezhe Z. Jin and Ann M. Graybiel

doi: 10.1038/nature04053

See also: Editor's summary

Large-scale sequencing of human influenza reveals the dynamic nature of viral genome evolution p1162

Elodie Ghedin, Naomi A. Sengamalay, Martin Shumway, Jennifer Zaborsky, Tamara Feldblyum, Vik Subbu, David J. Spiro, Jeff Sitz, Hean Koo, Pavel Bolotov, Dmitry Dernovoy, Tatiana Tatusova, Yiming Bao, Kirsten St George, Jill Taylor, David J. Lipman, Claire M. Fraser, Jeffery K. Taubenberger and Steven L. Salzberg

doi: 10.1038/nature04239

See also: Editor's summary

Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus p1167

Etienne Meylan, Joseph Curran, Kay Hofmann, Darius Moradpour, Marco Binder, Ralf Bartenschlager and Jürg Tschopp

doi: 10.1038/nature04193

Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein–protein interaction network p1173

Jean-François Rual, Kavitha Venkatesan, Tong Hao, Tomoko Hirozane-Kishikawa, Amélie Dricot, Ning Li, Gabriel F. Berriz, Francis D. Gibbons, Matija Dreze, Nono Ayivi-Guedehoussou, Niels Klitgord, Christophe Simon, Mike Boxem, Stuart Milstein, Jennifer Rosenberg, Debra S. Goldberg, Lan V. Zhang, Sharyl L. Wong, Giovanni Franklin, Siming Li, Joanna S. Albala, Janghoo Lim, Carlene Fraughton, Estelle Llamosas, Sebiha Cevik, Camille Bex, Philippe Lamesch, Robert S. Sikorski, Jean Vandenhaute, Huda Y. Zoghbi, Alex Smolyar, Stephanie Bosak, Reynaldo Sequerra, Lynn Doucette-Stamm, Michael E. Cusick, David E. Hill, Frederick P. Roth and Marc Vidal

doi: 10.1038/nature04209

Photosystem II core phosphorylation and photosynthetic acclimation require two different protein kinases p1179

Vera Bonardi, Paolo Pesaresi, Thomas Becker, Enrico Schleiff, Raik Wagner, Thomas Pfannschmidt, Peter Jahns and Dario Leister

doi: 10.1038/nature04016

Crystal structure of a junction between B-DNA and Z-DNA reveals two extruded bases p1183

Sung Chul Ha, Ky Lowenhaupt, Alexander Rich, Yang-Gyun Kim and Kyeong Kyu Kim

doi: 10.1038/nature04088

See also: Editor's summary | Authors

Structure of Escherichia coli RNase E catalytic domain and implications for RNA turnover p1187

Anastasia J. Callaghan, Maria Jose Marcaida, Jonathan A. Stead, Kenneth J. McDowall, William G. Scott and Ben F. Luisi

doi: 10.1038/nature04084


Technology Features

DNA microarrays: More than gene expression p1195

DNA microarrays are diversifying in new directions, including in vitro diagnostics. Diane Gershon takes a look at what's around the corner for microarray applications.

Diane Gershon

doi: 10.1038/4371195a

See also: Editor's summary

DNA microarrays: It's a small world p1195

doi: 10.1038/4371195b

DNA microarrays: Microarrays move downstream p1196

doi: 10.1038/4371196a

DNA microarrays: On the hardware front p1198

doi: 10.1038/4371198a

Table of suppliers p1199

doi: 10.1038/4371199a




The path to success p1201

EMBO award winner points to good working environment as secret to his success.

Paul Smaglik


Career Views

You say genomics, I say genetics... p1202

Whatever title is afforded today's practitioners of molecular genetics, one thing is certain — success hinges on having a wide set of skills. Ricki Lewis reports.

Ricki Lewis


David Bentley, chief scientist, Solexa, Chesterford, UK p1204

Key early encounters fuels biotech career.

Corie Lok


Scientists & Societies p1204

German organization aims to bring young scientists out of isolation.

Ulrich Schollwöck


Graduate Journal: Eye-opening meeting p1204

Poster session leads to networking opportunities.

Karolina Tkaczuk




Calculation Quest p1206

And the winner is...

Andrew Crumey

doi: 10.1038/4371206a

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