Table of contents



Peace and honour p927

The 2005 Nobel Peace Prize is a timely reminder of the good work done by the International Atomic Energy Agency and its director, Mohamed ElBaradei.

doi: 10.1038/437927a

From rhetoric to reality p927

President Bush's acknowledgement of the threat of pandemic flu is welcome, if belated.

doi: 10.1038/437927b

Advise the president p928

The merger of two White House advisory panels sends out the wrong message.

doi: 10.1038/437928a


Research Highlights

Research highlights p930

doi: 10.1038/437930a



US progressives fight for a voice in bioethics p932

Left-leaning think-tank aims to influence political decisions.

Erika Check

doi: 10.1038/437932a

Nuclear group nabs peace prize p932

Jim Giles

doi: 10.1038/437932b

Sidelines p933

doi: 10.1038/437933a

More evidence for hobbit unearthed as diggers are refused access to cave p934

Excavations shed light on lifestyle of Homo floresiensis.

Rex Dalton

doi: 10.1038/437934a

See also: Editor's summary

Indonesia struggles to control bird flu outbreak p937

As officials in Washington discuss how to tackle outbreaks of bird flu more effectively (see From rhetoric to reality ), an outbreak in humans continues in Asia. Declan Butler assesses the situation in Indonesia, and finds out how likely it is that the virus might evolve into a pandemic strain.

Declan Butler

doi: 10.1038/437937a

Chemical exchange captures Nobel p938

Prize goes to trio who transformed organic synthesis.

Philip Ball

doi: 10.1038/437938a

Ig Nobels hail world's longest-running experiment p938

Distinguished scientists gather in Boston for silliness awards.

Steve Nadis

doi: 10.1038/437938b

News in brief p940

doi: 10.1038/437940a

Correction p940

doi: 10.1038/437940b


News Features

Drug discovery: Playing dirty p942

Forget drugs carefully designed to hit one particular molecule — a better way of treating complex diseases such as cancer may be to aim for several targets at once, says Simon Frantz.

doi: 10.1038/437942a

Conservation in Brazil: The forgotten ecosystem p944

Everyone knows about the Amazon rainforest, but Brazil's tropical savannah is arguably under greater threat. Emma Marris visits a testing ground for future conservation strategies.

doi: 10.1038/437944a

See also: Editor's summary

Neuroscience: The maestro of minds p946

With a mathematician's logic and the perfectionism of a concert pianist, Nikos Logothetis is making waves in cognitive neuroscience — and putting the German town of Tübingen on the scientific map. Alison Abbott pays him a visit.

doi: 10.1038/437946a

See also: Editor's summary



The technology trap p948

America's widely-admired system for transferring ideas from the lab to the marketplace is showing signs of distress. Virginia Gewin reports.

Virginia Gewin

doi: 10.1038/437948a

See also: Editor's summary

In brief p949

doi: 10.1038/437949a

Market watch p949

doi: 10.1038/437949b



Re-wilding: a bold plan that needs native megafauna p951

Martin A. Schlaepfer

doi: 10.1038/437951a

Evolution was fine, just not in the case of humans p951

U Kutschera

doi: 10.1038/437951b

NIH moved quickly to help researchers after Katrina p951

Elias Zerhouni

doi: 10.1038/437951c

Indian players in some of IT and biotech's top teams p951

Mukund Mehrotra

doi: 10.1038/437951d

System to rank scientists was pedalled by Jeffreys p951

A. W. F. Edwards

doi: 10.1038/437951e


Books and Arts

Before the storm p953

Katrina grabbed the headlines recently, but hurricanes have been a focus of attention for centuries.

Howard B. Bluestein reviews Divine Wind: The History and Science of Hurricanes by Kerry Emanuel

doi: 10.1038/437953a

Fetal affliction p954

Michael Sargent reviews The Fetal Matrix: Evolution, Development and Disease by Peter Gluckman and Mark Hanson

doi: 10.1038/437954a

Nuclear reactions p955

Brenda Howard reviews Wormwood Forest: A Natural History of Chernobyl by Mary Mycio

doi: 10.1038/437955a

Exhibition: Collectors' items p955

doi: 10.1038/437955b


News and Views

Palaeoanthropology: Further fossil finds from Flores p957

New fossil discoveries on Flores, Indonesia, bolster the evidence that Homo floresiensis was a dwarfed human species that lived at the end of the last ice age. But the species' evolutionary origins remain obscure.

Daniel E. Lieberman

doi: 10.1038/437957a

See also: Editor's summary

Planetary science: The impact of Deep Impact p958

A good look at the Deep Impact cometary encounter was taken by the Rosetta mission, itself on the way to a rendezvous with a comet in 2014. So what is a comet — icy dustball or dusty iceball?

Paul D. Feldman

doi: 10.1038/437958a

See also: Editor's summary

Ecology: Roots of stability p959

The 'insurance hypothesis' holds that ecosystem diversity is a good thing because diversity confers overall stability in the face of stressful conditions. Experiments on grassland support that view.

Peter D. Moore

doi: 10.1038/437959a

Materials science: At a stretch p961

Rosamund Daw

doi: 10.1038/437961a

See also: Editor's summary

Device physics: No-nuisance noise p962

'Silence is golden' is a maxim of limited applicability where stochastic resonance holds sway. The effect uses noise to boost signal output in certain systems — and has just been seen in oscillators on a very small scale.

Adi R. Bulsara

doi: 10.1038/437962a

Developmental biology: Cell cycle unleashed p963

How does fertilization cause animal eggs to begin embryonic development? Following entry of the sperm, the ingeniously regulated degradation of a protein seems to kick-start the stalled cell cycle.

Takeo Kishimoto

doi: 10.1038/437963a

50 & 100 years ago p963

doi: 10.1038/437963ba

Plant physiology: A big issue for trees p965

The age of a tree and its size tend to increase together. Disentangling the effects of these two factors on tree vitality is no easy task, but further evidence adds to the view that it is size that matters.

Josep Peñuelas

doi: 10.1038/437965a


Brief Communications

Culinary archaeology: Millet noodles in Late Neolithic China p967

A remarkable find allows the reconstruction of the earliest recorded preparation of noodles.

Houyuan Lu, Xiaoyan Yang, Maolin Ye, Kam-Biu Liu, Zhengkai Xia, Xiaoyan Ren, Linhai Cai, Naiqin Wu and Tung-Sheng Liu

doi: 10.1038/437967a

See also: Editor's summary

Microwave devices: Carbon nanotubes as cold cathodes p968

Kenneth B. K. Teo, Eric Minoux, Ludovic Hudanski, Franck Peauger, Jean-Philippe Schnell, Laurent Gangloff, Pierre Legagneux, Dominique Dieumegard, Gehan A. J. Amaratunga and William I. Milne

doi: 10.1038/437968a



Implications for prediction and hazard assessment from the 2004 Parkfield earthquake p969

W. H. Bakun, B. Aagaard, B. Dost, W. L. Ellsworth, J. L. Hardebeck, R. A. Harris, C. Ji, M. J. S. Johnston, J. Langbein, J. J. Lienkaemper, A. J. Michael, J. R. Murray, R. M. Nadeau, P. A. Reasenberg, M. S. Reichle, E. A. Roeloffs, A. Shakal, R. W. Simpson and F. Waldhauser

doi: 10.1038/nature04067

See also: Editor's summary | Authors

Plectasin is a peptide antibiotic with therapeutic potential from a saprophytic fungus p975

Per H. Mygind, Rikke L. Fischer, Kirk M. Schnorr, Mogens T. Hansen, Carsten P. Sönksen, Svend Ludvigsen, Dorotea Raventós, Steen Buskov, Bjarke Christensen, Leonardo De Maria, Olivier Taboureau, Debbie Yaver, Signe G. Elvig-Jørgensen, Marianne V. Sørensen, Bjørn E. Christensen, Søren Kjærulff, Niels Frimodt-Moller, Robert I. Lehrer, Michael Zasloff and Hans-Henrik Kristensen

doi: 10.1038/nature04051

See also: Editor's summary

The N-end rule pathway as a nitric oxide sensor controlling the levels of multiple regulators p981

Rong-Gui Hu, Jun Sheng, Xin Qi, Zhenming Xu, Terry T. Takahashi and Alexander Varshavsky

doi: 10.1038/nature04027

See also: Editor's summary



A large dust/ice ratio in the nucleus of comet 9P/Tempel 1 p987

Michael Küppers, Ivano Bertini, Sonia Fornasier, Pedro J. Gutierrez, Stubbe F. Hviid, Laurent Jorda, Horst Uwe Keller, Jörg Knollenberg, Detlef Koschny, Rainer Kramm, Luisa-Maria Lara, Holger Sierks, Nicolas Thomas, Cesare Barbieri, Philippe Lamy, Hans Rickman, Rafael Rodrigo and The OSIRIS team

doi: 10.1038/nature04236

See also: Editor's summary

Geology and insolation-driven climatic history of Amazonian north polar materials on Mars p991

Kenneth L. Tanaka

doi: 10.1038/nature04065

See also: Editor's summary

Coherent signal amplification in bistable nanomechanical oscillators by stochastic resonance p995

Robert L. Badzey and Pritiraj Mohanty

doi: 10.1038/nature04124

Synthesis and properties of crosslinked recombinant pro-resilin p999

Christopher M. Elvin, Andrew G. Carr, Mickey G. Huson, Jane M. Maxwell, Roger D. Pearson, Tony Vuocolo, Nancy E. Liyou, Darren C. C. Wong, David J. Merritt and Nicholas E. Dixon

doi: 10.1038/nature04085

See also: Editor's summary | Authors

Climatic controls on central African hydrology during the past 20,000 years p1003

Enno Schefu, Stefan Schouten and Ralph R. Schneider

doi: 10.1038/nature03945

The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America p1007

Peter J. Makovicky, Sebastián Apesteguía and Federico L. Agnolín

doi: 10.1038/nature03996

See also: Editor's summary

Further evidence for small-bodied hominins from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia p1012

M. J. Morwood, P. Brown, Jatmiko, T. Sutikna, E. Wahyu Saptomo, K. E. Westaway, Rokus Awe Due, R. G. Roberts, T. Maeda, S. Wasisto and T. Djubiantono

doi: 10.1038/nature04022

See also: Editor's summary

Vertebrate Smoothened functions at the primary cilium p1018

Kevin C. Corbit, Pia Aanstad, Veena Singla, Andrew R. Norman, Didier Y. R. Stainier and Jeremy F. Reiter

doi: 10.1038/nature04117

See also: Editor's summary

SERRATE coordinates shoot meristem function and leaf axial patterning in Arabidopsis p1022

Stephen P. Grigg, Claudia Canales, Angela Hay and Miltos Tsiantis

doi: 10.1038/nature04052

Repeated cocaine exposure in vivo facilitates LTP induction in midbrain dopamine neurons p1027

Qing-song Liu, Lu Pu and Mu-ming Poo

doi: 10.1038/nature04050

See also: Editor's summary

A network-based analysis of systemic inflammation in humans p1032

Steve E. Calvano, Wenzhong Xiao, Daniel R. Richards, Ramon M. Felciano, Henry V. Baker, Raymond J. Cho, Richard O. Chen, Bernard H. Brownstein, J. Perren Cobb, S. Kevin Tschoeke, Carol Miller-Graziano, Lyle L. Moldawer, Michael N. Mindrinos, Ronald W. Davis, Ronald G. Tompkins, Stephen F. Lowry and Inflamm and Host Response to Injury Large Scale Collab. Res. Program

doi: 10.1038/nature03985

Chromosome nondisjunction yields tetraploid rather than aneuploid cells in human cell lines p1038

Qinghua Shi and Randall W. King

doi: 10.1038/nature03958

See also: Editor's summary

Cytokinesis failure generating tetraploids promotes tumorigenesis in p53-null cells p1043

Takeshi Fujiwara, Madhavi Bandi, Masayuki Nitta, Elena V. Ivanova, Roderick T. Bronson and David Pellman

doi: 10.1038/nature04217

Calcium triggers exit from meiosis II by targeting the APC/C inhibitor XErp1 for degradation p1048

Nadine R. Rauh, Andreas Schmidt, Jenny Bormann, Erich A. Nigg and Thomas U. Mayer

doi: 10.1038/nature04093

Solution structure of a protein denatured state and folding intermediate p1053

T. L. Religa, J. S. Markson, U. Mayor, S. M. V. Freund and A. R. Fersht

doi: 10.1038/nature04054

Retraction: RNA-interference-directed chromatin modification coupled to RNA polymerase II transcription p1057

Vera Schramke, Daniel M. Sheedy, Ahmet M. Denli, Carolina Bonila, Karl Ekwall, Gregory J. Hannon and Robin C. Allshire

doi: 10.1038/nature04181

Retraction: Negative lattice expansion from the superconductivity–antiferromagnetism crossover in ruthenium copper oxides p1057

A. C. Mclaughlin, F. Sher and J. P. Attfield

doi: 10.1038/nature04182

Retraction: Formation of zirconium metallic glass p1057

Jianzhong Zhang and Yusheng Zhao

doi: 10.1038/nature04183




The exception to the rule p1059

Just how level should the playing field be for postdoc pay scales?

Paul Smaglik



Primed for a biotech boom p1060

Biologists in Osaka think that their city's 'un-Japanese' culture makes it the ideal part of the country to become a hub for biotechnology. David Cyranoski investigates.

David Cyranoski



Spotlight on Osaka




Toy planes p1064

Tobias S. Buckell

doi: 10.1038/4371064a

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