Table of contents

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Making the paper: Sally McBrearty and Nina Jablonski pxiii

How a trip to Kenya put the modern chimpanzee on the map.

doi: 10.1038/437xiiia

Abstractions: First Author pxiii

doi: 10.1038/437xiiib

Quantified: Germany pxiii

doi: 10.1038/437xiiic



Responding to uncertainty p1

Public controversies that involve scientific uncertainty can be influenced by mavericks. Open confrontation and analysis serves the public better than excommunication.

doi: 10.1038/437001a

Still not deterred p1

Universities should back researchers determined to stand up for animal research in the face of terrorism.

doi: 10.1038/437001b

Three cheers p2

This issue of Nature includes several reasons for editorial celebration.

doi: 10.1038/437002a


Research Highlights

Research highlights p4

doi: 10.1038/437004a



Advice on nuclear safety set for update in wake of floods p6

Tsunami highlights reactor vulnerability.

Quirin Schiermeier

doi: 10.1038/437006a

Snapshot: Sea heats up for hurricane season p7

Satellite shows warm ocean waters.

doi: 10.1038/437007a

Hospital closure puts tissue bank in jeopardy p7

Pathologists ponder fate of key medical repository.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi: 10.1038/437007b

Designs on Europa unfurl p8

Earth flyby may bring mission within NASA's budget.

Tony Reichhardt

doi: 10.1038/437008a

Scientist quits climate-change panel p9

Row over report prompts resignation.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi: 10.1038/437009a

NIH ethics rules come off probation p9

Ban on consulting fees to be reviewed next year.

Emma Marris

doi: 10.1038/437009b

Governors take the initiative over US carbon dioxide emissions p11

Nine states impose limits on greenhouse-gas pollution.

Emma Marris

doi: 10.1038/437011a

Sidelines p12

doi: 10.1038/437012a

Satellite view alerts China to soaring pollution p12

Air quality is worse than thought — and is deteriorating fast.

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/437012b

Commuters remain stoical in face of terrorist attacks p13

Experience of terrorism may have helped Londoners overcome stress.

Jennifer Wild

doi: 10.1038/437013a

News in brief p14

doi: 10.1038/437014a


News Features

Chimp genome:  Branching out p17

The chimp was a great start. But the genomes of our other primate relatives will help to reveal a whole lot more, says Carina Dennis.

doi: 10.1038/437017a

See also: Editor's summary

What the chimp means to me p20

Interacting with our closest living relative can be a profound experience. To mark the publication of the chimpanzee genome, Nature asked four individuals for their different perspectives.

doi: 10.1038/437020a

See also: Editor's summary



US set to endorse human pesticide testing p24

Pesticide manufacturers are pushing hard to ensure that data from toxicity tests on people can be used in licence applications for their products.

Meredith Wadman

doi: 10.1038/437024a

See also: Editor's summary

In brief p25

doi: 10.1038/437025a

Market watch p25

doi: 10.1038/437025b



Time to use neuroscience findings in teacher training p26

Daniel Ansari

doi: 10.1038/437026a

Embryo's moral status is unaffected by alteration p26

Lee Turnpenny

doi: 10.1038/437026b

Industrial practices set no standard for science p26

Steven Tait

doi: 10.1038/437026c

Farming need not replace fishing if stocks are rebuilt p26

Julia K. Baum, Jana M. McPherson and Ransom A. Myers

doi: 10.1038/437026d



The ethics of research on great apes p27

In the wake of the chimpanzee genome publication, Pascal Gagneux, James J. Moore and Ajit Varki consider the ethical and scientific challenges for scientists who work on captive great apes.

doi: 10.1038/437027a

See also: Editor's summary

A unique biomedical resource at risk p30

Research using chimpanzees has been crucial in the fight against human diseases such as hepatitis. John L. VandeBerg, Stuart M. Zola and colleagues urge that this now dwindling resource be sustained.

doi: 10.1038/437030a

See also: Editor's summary


Books and Arts

A family resemblance p33

We are closely related to other apes, but how similar are we really?

Robert Sapolsky reviews Our Inner Ape by Frans de Waal

doi: 10.1038/437033a

See also: Editor's summary

Symmetry by numbers p34

István Hargittai reviews The Equation that Couldn't be Solved: How Mathematical Genius Discovered the Language of Symmetry by Mario Livio

doi: 10.1038/437034a

Robots have feelings too p35

Dylan Evans reviews Who Needs Emotions? The Brain Meets the Robot

doi: 10.1038/437035a


News and Views

Astrophysics:  How to make a massive star p37

Two competing theories have been applied to the formation of high-mass stars. Observations of two stellar systems now suggest that the accretion model has a weightier claim than its rival merger model.

Barbara A. Whitney

doi: 10.1038/437037a

See also: Editor's summary

Palaeontology:  Between water and land p38

The most informative examples of large-scale evolution are provided by major transitions between environments. Fresh research on an ancient amphibian shows how it adapted to locomotion both in water and on land.

Robert L. Carroll

doi: 10.1038/437038a

See also: Editor's summary

Palaeoclimate: The riddle of the sediments p39

The ratio of oxygen isotopes contained in the signal in deep-sea sediments can tell us a great deal about past ice-volume variations. The challenge is to disentangle the different contributions to the signal.

Mark Siddall

doi: 10.1038/437039a

See also: Editor's summary

Cancer immunology:  Cat and mouse games p41

The immune system is intimately involved in how tumours develop. But how do tumours avoid being killed by immune responses? It seems that in some instances they can lull immune cells into a false sense of security.

Cornelis J. M. Melief

doi: 10.1038/437041a

See also: Editor's summary

50 & 100 years ago p41

doi: 10.1038/437041b

Obituary:  John Norris Bahcall 1935−2005 p43

Nuclear astrophysicist who uncovered the solar neutrino problem.

Jeremiah P. Ostriker

doi: 10.1038/437043a


Brief Communications

Phytochemistry:  Ibuprofen-like activity in extra-virgin olive oil p45

Enzymes in an inflammation pathway are inhibited by oleocanthal, a component of olive oil.

Gary K. Beauchamp, Russell S. J. Keast, Diane Morel, Jianming Lin, Jana Pika, Qiang Han, Chi-Ho Lee, Amos B. Smith and Paul A. S. Breslin

doi: 10.1038/437045a

See also: Editor's summary

Geophysics:  A moving fluid pulse in a fault zone p46

Matthew M. Haney, Roel Snieder, Jon Sheiman and Steven Losh

doi: 10.1038/437046a

See also: Editor's summary


Brief Communications Arising

Plant genetics: Hothead healer and extragenomic information pE1

Abed Chaudhury

doi: 10.1038/nature04062

Plant genetics:  RNA cache or genome trash? pE1

Animesh Ray

doi: 10.1038/nature04063

Plant genetics: Hothead healer and extragenomic information (reply) pE2

Susan J. Lolle, Jennifer L. Victor, Jessica M. Young and Robert E. Pruitt

doi: 10.1038/nature04064


The Chimpanzee Genome

The chimpanzee genome p47

Chris Gunter and Ritu Dhand

doi: 10.1038/436047a

Timeline: A brief history of chimps p48

As our closest living relative, the chimpanzee holds a unique fascination for researchers from anthropologists to geneticists. Here, we chart the history of mankind's relationship with the chimp, culminating in this week's landmark genomic achievement.

doi: 10.1038/437048a

News & Views: The chimpanzee and us p50

Publication of the draft DNA sequence of the chimpanzee genome is an especially notable event: the data provide a treasury of information for understanding human biology and evolution.

Wen-Hsiung Li and Matthew A. Saunders

doi: 10.1038/437050a



The second inheritance system of chimpanzees and humans p52

Andrew Whiten

doi: 10.1038/nature04023

See also: Editor's summary

A century of getting to know the chimpanzee p56

Frans B. M. de Waal

doi: 10.1038/nature03999

Our chimpanzee mind p60

Marc Hauser

doi: 10.1038/nature03917

Molecular insights into human brain evolution p64

Robert Sean Hill and Christopher A. Walsh

doi: 10.1038/nature04103



Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome p69

The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium

doi: 10.1038/nature04072

See also: The Chimpanzee Genome by Li & Saunders

A genome-wide comparison of recent chimpanzee and human segmental duplications p88

Ze Cheng, Mario Ventura, Xinwei She, Philipp Khaitovich, Tina Graves, Kazutoyo Osoegawa, Deanna Church, Pieter DeJong, Richard K. Wilson, Svante Pääbo, Mariano Rocchi and Evan E. Eichler

doi: 10.1038/nature04000

See also: Editor's summary | The Chimpanzee Genome by Li & Saunders

Human subtelomeres are hot spots of interchromosomal recombination and segmental duplication p94

Elena V. Linardopoulou, Eleanor M. Williams, Yuxin Fan, Cynthia Friedman, Janet M. Young and Barbara J. Trask

doi: 10.1038/nature04029

See also: Editor's summary



Conservation of Y-linked genes during human evolution revealed by comparative sequencing in chimpanzee p100

Jennifer F. Hughes, Helen Skaletsky, Tatyana Pyntikova, Patrick J. Minx, Tina Graves, Steve Rozen, Richard K. Wilson and David C. Page

doi: 10.1038/nature04101

See also: Editor's summary

First fossil chimpanzee p105

Sally McBrearty and Nina G. Jablonski

doi: 10.1038/nature04008

See also: Editor's summary

A disk of dust and molecular gas around a high-mass protostar p109

Nimesh A. Patel, Salvador Curiel, T. K. Sridharan, Qizhou Zhang, Todd R. Hunter, Paul T. P. Ho, José M. Torrelles, James M. Moran, José F. Gómez and Guillem Anglada

doi: 10.1038/nature04011

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Whitney

A circumstellar disk associated with a massive protostellar object p112

Zhibo Jiang, Motohide Tamura, Misato Fukagawa, Jim Hough, Phil Lucas, Hiroshi Suto, Miki Ishii and Ji Yang

doi: 10.1038/nature04012

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Whitney

A photonic quantum information interface p116

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, M. Halder, O. Alibart, P. Baldi, N. Gisin and H. Zbinden

doi: 10.1038/nature04009

See also: Editor's summary

A general strategy for nanocrystal synthesis p121

Xun Wang, Jing Zhuang, Qing Peng and Yadong Li

doi: 10.1038/nature03968

Modelled atmospheric temperatures and global sea levels over the past million years p125

Richard Bintanja, Roderik S.W. van de Wal and Johannes Oerlemans

doi: 10.1038/nature03975

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Siddall

Increase in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over China observed from space p129

Andreas Richter, John P. Burrows, Hendrik Nü, Claire Granier and Ulrike Niemeier

doi: 10.1038/nature04092

See also: Editor's summary

Fracture surface energy of the Punchbowl fault, San Andreas system p133

Judith S. Chester, Frederick M. Chester and Andreas K. Kronenberg

doi: 10.1038/nature03942

See also: Editor's summary

The axial skeleton of the Devonian tetrapod Ichthyostega p137

Per Erik Ahlberg, Jennifer A. Clack and Henning Blom

doi: 10.1038/nature03893

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Carroll

Sporadic immunogenic tumours avoid destruction by inducing T-cell tolerance p141

Gerald Willimsky and Thomas Blankenstein

doi: 10.1038/nature03954

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Melief

Role of nucleophosmin in embryonic development and tumorigenesis p147

Silvia Grisendi, Rosa Bernardi, Marco Rossi, Ke Cheng, Luipa Khandker, Katia Manova and Pier Paolo Pandolfi

doi: 10.1038/nature03915

See also: Editor's summary

Structural mechanism for sterol sensing and transport by OSBP-related proteins p154

Young Jun Im, Sumana Raychaudhuri, William A. Prinz and James H. Hurley

doi: 10.1038/nature03923

Observation of a dewetting transition in the collapse of the melittin tetramer p159

Pu Liu, Xuhui Huang, Ruhong Zhou and B. J. Berne

doi: 10.1038/nature03926




A boost for the Big Apple p163

Investment in New York biotech infrastructure and basic research could draw more entrepreneurs to the area

Paul Smaglik


Careers and Recruitment

Expression of interest p164

Scientists willing to tackle membrane proteins should find opportunities unfolding, says Hannah Hoag.

Hannah Hoag



Highlight on Norway


Highlight: Vienna




Nostalgia p168

A novel resurrection.

Hiromi Goto

doi: 10.1038/437168a

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