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Editorials

India's just deserts p441

The nuclear technology transfer deal agreed by the United States and India makes some sense on its own merits — but it leaves international non-proliferation efforts in disarray.

doi:10.1038/436441a


Born to be in Brussels p441

The proposed European Research Council will be safest under the wing of the European Commission.

doi:10.1038/436441b


Independence at the top p442

The US Food and Drug Administration badly needs some strong and stable leadership.

doi:10.1038/436442a


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p444

doi:10.1038/436444a


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News

Nuclear deal riles India's researchers p446

Scientists say home-grown programme will suffer as international isolation ends.

Declan Butler & K. S. Jayaraman

doi:10.1038/436446a


Sighting of 'extinct' bird may have been a case of mistaken identity p447

Doubts raised over validity of ivory-bill woodpecker report.

Rex Dalton

doi:10.1038/436447a


Beta-blockers tackle memories of horror p448

Common drug might treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

Jim Giles

doi:10.1038/436448a


Sidelines p450

doi:10.1038/436450a


Senate hearings strengthen calls for US action over climate p450

Winds of change blow through Congress.

Andreas von Bubnoff

doi:10.1038/436450b


Snapshot:  Fresh scope p451

Archive photograph shows Darwinism in the dock.

doi:10.1038/436451a


Australian scientists protest at loss of funding board p451

Academic community fears lobbying power will be lost to government.

Carina Dennis

doi:10.1038/436451b


Biodiversity and climate form focus of forest canopy plan p452

International rainforest project looks skywards.

Michael Hopkin

doi:10.1038/436452a


Neuroscientists see red over Dalai Lama p452

Researchers petition against meditation lecture.

David Cyranoski

doi:10.1038/436452b


News in brief p453

doi:10.1038/436453a


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News Features

In defence of data p454

As spokesman for America's scientific élite, Ralph Cicerone will have to do some tough talking in Washington. Emma Marris asks him how he'll ensure that politicians will listen to the science.

doi:10.1038/436454a

See also: Editor's summary


Lymphatic system:  Unlocking the drains p456

After centuries of playing second fiddle to the blood system, our lymphatic circulation is coming into its own as a key player in diseases ranging from cancer to asthma. Phyllida Brown reports.

doi:10.1038/436456a

See also: Editor's summary


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Business

Painkiller in the dock p459

Still reeling from the loss of its blockbuster pill Vioxx, Merck is now in court to face its first lawsuit over the drug. Meredith Wadman reports.

doi:10.1038/436459a

See also: Editor's summary


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Correspondence

Sanctions should not apply to biomedical research p460

Ahmad Jalili

doi:10.1038/436460a


Bioterror killed five in US; guns kill 30,000 a year p460

David R. Whitlock

doi:10.1038/436460b


Ethics debate is what put Newcastle paper in the news p460

Alison Murdoch & Miodrag Stojkovic

doi:10.1038/436460c


Misconduct: lower ranks take most of the blame p460

Shawn G. Clouthier

doi:10.1038/436460d


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Books and Arts

Power and the people p461

A wide-ranging look at the future of the nuclear power industry.

Michael Golay reviews Nuclear Renaissance: Technologies and Policies for the Future of Nuclear Power by William Nuttall

doi:10.1038/436461a


A planet tells its story p462

Simon Lamb reviews Reading the Rocks: The Autobiography of the Earth by Marcia Bjornerud

doi:10.1038/436462a


Laying down the laws p463

Stephen G. Brush reviews When Physics Became King by Iwan Rhys Morus

doi:10.1038/436463a


Exhibition:  Snow business p463

doi:10.1038/436463b


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Essay

Outsmarted by ants p465

An elegant orientation solution that is used by ants to get back to their nest eluded even Richard Feynman, suggesting that social insects could help to solve many of our engineering problems.

Francis Ratnieks

doi:10.1038/436465a


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News and Views

Earth sciences:  Ghosts from within p467

The first detection of geoneutrinos from beneath our feet is a landmark result. It will allow better estimation of the abundances and distributions of radioactive elements in the Earth, and of the Earth's overall heat budget.

William F. McDonough

doi:10.1038/436467a

See also: Editor's summary


Cancer:  One step at a time p468

Traditional chemotherapy kills tumour cells directly; some newer drugs work instead by cutting the tumour's blood supply. An innovative approach combines these strategies sequentially to pack a double whammy.

David Mooney

doi:10.1038/436468a

See also: Editor's summary


Carbon cycle:  The age of the Amazon's breath p469

The inorganic carbon carried in rivers of the Amazon basin seems to originate largely from the decomposition of young plant material — a finding that improves our understanding of the role of rivers in the carbon cycle.

Peter A. Raymond

doi:10.1038/436469a

See also: Editor's summary


Materials science:  Sticky business p471

Rosamund Daw

doi:10.1038/436471b


Cognitive neuroscience:  Decision amid uncertainty p471

Choosing whether to stick to a belief or to abandon it in the face of uncertainty is central to human behaviour. Modelling implicates brain chemicals called neuromodulators in adjudicating this essential decision.

Jonathan D. Cohen & Gary Aston-Jones

doi:10.1038/436471a


Quantum optics:  Crystal-clear images p472

Two experiments that use nonlinear crystals to control the spatial distribution of photons in optical images bring the field of quantum imaging closer to maturity. Quantum information processing could ultimately benefit.

Claude Fabre

doi:10.1038/436472a


50 and 100 years ago p473

doi:10.1038/436473b


Neuroscience:  Genomics reaches the synapse p473

A genomic survey uses innovative genetics to make neurons susceptible to RNA-mediated gene inactivation. The results implicate many genes in communication at the synapse between neurons and muscle.

Cori Bargmann

doi:10.1038/436473a

See also: Editor's summary


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Brief Communications

Forgery:  ‘Fingerprinting’ documents and packaging p475

Unique surface imperfections serve as an easily identifiable feature in the fight against fraud.

James D. R. Buchanan, Russell P. Cowburn, Ana-Vanessa Jausovec, Dorothée Petit, Peter Seem, Gang Xiong, Del Atkinson, Kate Fenton, Dan A. Allwood & Matthew T. Bryan

doi:10.1038/436475a

See also: Editor's summary


Insect defences:  Taste alteration and endoparasites p476

Elizabeth A. Bernays & Michael S. Singer

doi:10.1038/436476a


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Brief Communications Arising

Climate:  How unusual is today's solar activity? pE3

Raimund Muscheler, Fortunat Joos, Simon A. Müller & Ian Snowball

doi:10.1038/nature04045


Climate:  How unusual is today's solar activity? (reply) pE4

S. K. Solanki, I. G. Usoskin, B. Kromer, M. Schüssler & J. Beer

doi:10.1038/nature04046


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Outlook: India

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Outlook: India

India p477

doi:10.1038/436477a


Then and now p478

Inder Verma celebrates the recent success of India's biotechnology industry, applauds the increased investment and looks to the future.

doi:10.1038/436478a


Biotech boom p480

India's thriving biotechnology industry is threatened by a change in the law. Will the current high levels of investment be enough to secure its future? K. S. Jayaraman finds out.

doi:10.1038/436480a


Vaccines on trial p484

One of the largest ever vaccine studies is under way in Kolkata. Paroma Basu uncovers the benefits, and difficulties, of inoculating 60,000 people against cholera and typhoid fever.

doi:10.1038/436484a


India's drug tests p485

Drug companies are converging on India to conduct low-cost clinical trials. But is it ready to become the outsourcing centre for the world? T. V. Padma investigates.

doi:10.1038/436485a


Ayurveda p486

Science and business are racing to tap the 3,000-year-old system of medicine for new drugs, says T. V. Padma.

doi:10.1038/436486a


Breathing life into biology p487

Mriganka Sur says that life sciences will prosper in India once research and teaching reconnect.

doi:10.1038/436487a


Coming home p488

Reagents may be slow to arrive, but the freedom to explore his own research interests more than compensates. Satyajit Mayor is thriving in India.

doi:10.1038/436488a


Rivalry and red tape p490

Researchers are suffering as a result of the conflicts between funding agencies. T. V. Padma uncovers plans to heal the rift.

doi:10.1038/436490a


Among the best p492

India's life-sciences institutes are rewriting the rule books for research. K. S. Jayaraman finds that they are focusing on higher standards and enterprise.

doi:10.1038/436492a


The coming epidemic p496

A staggering 5.1 million people are estimated to be HIV positive in India. Apoorva Mandavilli finds a country on the brink of a crisis.

doi:10.1038/436496a



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Articles

Experimental investigation of geologically produced antineutrinos with KamLAND p499

T. Araki, S. Enomoto, K. Furuno, Y. Gando, K. Ichimura, H. Ikeda, K. Inoue, Y. Kishimoto, M. Koga, Y. Koseki, T. Maeda, T. Mitsui, M. Motoki, K. Nakajima, H. Ogawa, M. Ogawa, K. Owada, J.-S. Ricol, I. Shimizu, J. Shirai, F. Suekane, A. Suzuki, K. Tada, S. Takeuchi, K. Tamae, Y. Tsuda, H. Watanabe, J. Busenitz, T. Classen, Z. Djurcic, G. Keefer, D. Leonard, A. Piepke, E. Yakushev, B. E. Berger, Y. D. Chan, M. P. Decowski, D. A. Dwyer, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. Goldman, F. Gray, K. M. Heeger, L. Hsu, K. T. Lesko, K.-B. Luk, H. Murayama, T. O'Donnell, A. W. P. Poon, H. M. Steiner, L. A. Winslow, C. Mauger, R. D. McKeown, P. Vogel, C. E. Lane, T. Miletic, G. Guillian, J. G. Learned, J. Maricic, S. Matsuno, S. Pakvasa, G. A. Horton-Smith, S. Dazeley, S. Hatakeyama, A. Rojas, R. Svoboda, B. D. Dieterle, J. Detwiler, G. Gratta, K. Ishii, N. Tolich, Y. Uchida, M. Batygov, W. Bugg, Y. Efremenko, Y. Kamyshkov, A. Kozlov, Y. Nakamura, H. J. Karwowski, D. M. Markoff, K. Nakamura, R. M. Rohm, W. Tornow, R. Wendell, M.-J. Chen, Y.-F. Wang & F. Piquemal

doi:10.1038/nature03980

See also: Editor's summary


Evidence for magmatic evolution and diversity on Mars from infrared observations p504

P. R. Christensen, H. Y. McSween, Jr, J. L. Bandfield, S. W. Ruff, A. D. Rogers, V. E. Hamilton, N. Gorelick, M. B. Wyatt, B. M. Jakosky, H. H. Kieffer, M. C. Malin & J. E. Moersch

doi:10.1038/nature03639

See also: Editor's summary


Systematic analysis of genes required for synapse structure and function p510

Derek Sieburth, QueeLim Ch'ng, Michael Dybbs, Masoud Tavazoie, Scott Kennedy, Duo Wang, Denis Dupuy, Jean-François Rual, David E. Hill, Marc Vidal, Gary Ruvkun & Joshua M. Kaplan

doi:10.1038/nature03809


Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to lung p518

Andy J. Minn, Gaorav P. Gupta, Peter M. Siegel, Paula D. Bos, Weiping Shu, Dilip D. Giri, Agnes Viale, Adam B. Olshen, William L. Gerald & Joan Massagué

doi:10.1038/nature03799

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

The ‘solar model problem’ solved by the abundance of neon in nearby stars p525

Jeremy J. Drake & Paola Testa

doi:10.1038/nature03803

See also: Editor's summary


Crossover from ‘mesoscopic’ to ‘universal’ phase for electron transmission in quantum dots p529

M. Avinun-Kalish, M. Heiblum, O. Zarchin, D. Mahalu & V. Umansky

doi:10.1038/nature03899


Unconventional critical behaviour in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor p534

F. Kagawa, K. Miyagawa & K. Kanoda

doi:10.1038/nature03806


Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers p538

Emilio Mayorga, Anthony K. Aufdenkampe, Caroline A. Masiello, Alex V. Krusche, John I. Hedges, Paul D. Quay, Jeffrey E. Richey & Thomas A. Brown

doi:10.1038/nature03880

See also: Editor's summary


A sharp lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary imaged beneath eastern North America p542

Catherine A. Rychert, Karen M. Fischer & Stéphane Rondenay

doi:10.1038/nature03904

See also: Editor's summary


Host shift to an invasive plant triggers rapid animal hybrid speciation p546

Dietmar Schwarz, Benjamin M. Matta, Nicole L. Shakir-Botteri & Bruce A. McPheron

doi:10.1038/nature03800


Robust habit learning in the absence of awareness and independent of the medial temporal lobe p550

Peter J. Bayley, Jennifer C. Frascino & Larry R. Squire

doi:10.1038/nature03857

See also: Editor's summary


Molecular recycling within amyloid fibrils p554

Natàlia Carulla, Gemma L. Caddy, Damien R. Hall, Jesús Zurdo, Margarida Gairí, Miguel Feliz, Ernest Giralt, Carol V. Robinson & Christopher M. Dobson

doi:10.1038/nature03986


Action potential refractory period in ureter smooth muscle is set by Ca sparks and BK channels p559

T. Burdyga & Susan Wray

doi:10.1038/nature03834

See also: Editor's summary


Somatic control of germline sexual development is mediated by the JAK/STAT pathway p563

Matthew Wawersik, Allison Milutinovich, Abbie L. Casper, Erika Matunis, Brian Williams & Mark Van Doren

doi:10.1038/nature03849


Temporal targeting of tumour cells and neovasculature with a nanoscale delivery system p568

Shiladitya Sengupta, David Eavarone, Ishan Capila, Ganlin Zhao, Nicki Watson, Tanyel Kiziltepe & Ram Sasisekharan

doi:10.1038/nature03794

See also: Editor's summary


The Lyme disease agent exploits a tick protein to infect the mammalian host p573

Nandhini Ramamoorthi, Sukanya Narasimhan, Utpal Pal, Fukai Bao, Xiaofeng F. Yang, Durland Fish, Juan Anguita, Michael V. Norgard, Fred S. Kantor, John F. Anderson, Raymond A. Koski & Erol Fikrig

doi:10.1038/nature03812

See also: Editor's summary


T-cell receptor triggering is critically dependent on the dimensions of its peptide-MHC ligand p578

Kaushik Choudhuri, David Wiseman, Marion H. Brown, Keith Gould & P. Anton van der Merwe

doi:10.1038/nature03843

See also: Editor's summary


Functional coordination of intraflagellar transport motors p583

Guangshuo Ou, Oliver E. Blacque, Joshua J. Snow, Michel R. Leroux & Jonathan M. Scholey

doi:10.1038/nature03818


Optimality and evolutionary tuning of the expression level of a protein p588

Erez Dekel & Uri Alon

doi:10.1038/nature03842


Somatic misexpression of germline P granules and enhanced RNA interference in retinoblastoma pathway mutants p593

Duo Wang, Scott Kennedy, Darryl Conte, Jr, John K. Kim, Harrison W. Gabel, Ravi S. Kamath, Craig C. Mello & Gary Ruvkun

doi:10.1038/nature04010


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Naturejobs

Prospect

India's changing face p599

Subcontinent is becoming more than an outsourcing outpost

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7050-599a


Career Views

Floyd Bloom, chief scientific officer and chairman of the board, Neurome, La Jolla, California p600

Former Science editor thrives on breadth

Floyd Bloom

doi:10.1038/nj7050-600a


Recruiters & Academia p600

Open-source offers solutions for science software education

Greg Wilson

doi:10.1038/nj7050-600b


Graduate Journal:  Crisis of faith p600

Graduate student evaluates pecking order

Karolina Tkaczuk

doi:10.1038/nj7050-600c


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Futures

The forever kitten p602

Beyond nine lives.

Peter F. Hamilton

doi:10.1038/436602a


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