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India's just deserts p441

The nuclear technology transfer deal agreed by the United States and India makes some sense on its own merits — but it leaves international non-proliferation efforts in disarray.


Born to be in Brussels p441

The proposed European Research Council will be safest under the wing of the European Commission.


Independence at the top p442

The US Food and Drug Administration badly needs some strong and stable leadership.



Research Highlights

Research highlights p444




Nuclear deal riles India's researchers p446

Scientists say home-grown programme will suffer as international isolation ends.

Declan Butler & K. S. Jayaraman


Sighting of 'extinct' bird may have been a case of mistaken identity p447

Doubts raised over validity of ivory-bill woodpecker report.

Rex Dalton


Beta-blockers tackle memories of horror p448

Common drug might treat post-traumatic stress disorder.

Jim Giles


Sidelines p450


Senate hearings strengthen calls for US action over climate p450

Winds of change blow through Congress.

Andreas von Bubnoff


Snapshot:  Fresh scope p451

Archive photograph shows Darwinism in the dock.


Australian scientists protest at loss of funding board p451

Academic community fears lobbying power will be lost to government.

Carina Dennis


Biodiversity and climate form focus of forest canopy plan p452

International rainforest project looks skywards.

Michael Hopkin


Neuroscientists see red over Dalai Lama p452

Researchers petition against meditation lecture.

David Cyranoski


News in brief p453



News Features

In defence of data p454

As spokesman for America's scientific élite, Ralph Cicerone will have to do some tough talking in Washington. Emma Marris asks him how he'll ensure that politicians will listen to the science.


See also: Editor's summary

Lymphatic system:  Unlocking the drains p456

After centuries of playing second fiddle to the blood system, our lymphatic circulation is coming into its own as a key player in diseases ranging from cancer to asthma. Phyllida Brown reports.


See also: Editor's summary



Painkiller in the dock p459

Still reeling from the loss of its blockbuster pill Vioxx, Merck is now in court to face its first lawsuit over the drug. Meredith Wadman reports.


See also: Editor's summary



Sanctions should not apply to biomedical research p460

Ahmad Jalili


Bioterror killed five in US; guns kill 30,000 a year p460

David R. Whitlock


Ethics debate is what put Newcastle paper in the news p460

Alison Murdoch & Miodrag Stojkovic


Misconduct: lower ranks take most of the blame p460

Shawn G. Clouthier



Books and Arts

Power and the people p461

A wide-ranging look at the future of the nuclear power industry.

Michael Golay reviews Nuclear Renaissance: Technologies and Policies for the Future of Nuclear Power by William Nuttall


A planet tells its story p462

Simon Lamb reviews Reading the Rocks: The Autobiography of the Earth by Marcia Bjornerud


Laying down the laws p463

Stephen G. Brush reviews When Physics Became King by Iwan Rhys Morus


Exhibition:  Snow business p463




Outsmarted by ants p465

An elegant orientation solution that is used by ants to get back to their nest eluded even Richard Feynman, suggesting that social insects could help to solve many of our engineering problems.

Francis Ratnieks



News and Views

Earth sciences:  Ghosts from within p467

The first detection of geoneutrinos from beneath our feet is a landmark result. It will allow better estimation of the abundances and distributions of radioactive elements in the Earth, and of the Earth's overall heat budget.

William F. McDonough


See also: Editor's summary

Cancer:  One step at a time p468

Traditional chemotherapy kills tumour cells directly; some newer drugs work instead by cutting the tumour's blood supply. An innovative approach combines these strategies sequentially to pack a double whammy.

David Mooney


See also: Editor's summary

Carbon cycle:  The age of the Amazon's breath p469

The inorganic carbon carried in rivers of the Amazon basin seems to originate largely from the decomposition of young plant material — a finding that improves our understanding of the role of rivers in the carbon cycle.

Peter A. Raymond


See also: Editor's summary

Materials science:  Sticky business p471

Rosamund Daw


Cognitive neuroscience:  Decision amid uncertainty p471

Choosing whether to stick to a belief or to abandon it in the face of uncertainty is central to human behaviour. Modelling implicates brain chemicals called neuromodulators in adjudicating this essential decision.

Jonathan D. Cohen & Gary Aston-Jones


Quantum optics:  Crystal-clear images p472

Two experiments that use nonlinear crystals to control the spatial distribution of photons in optical images bring the field of quantum imaging closer to maturity. Quantum information processing could ultimately benefit.

Claude Fabre


50 and 100 years ago p473


Neuroscience:  Genomics reaches the synapse p473

A genomic survey uses innovative genetics to make neurons susceptible to RNA-mediated gene inactivation. The results implicate many genes in communication at the synapse between neurons and muscle.

Cori Bargmann


See also: Editor's summary


Brief Communications

Forgery:  ‘Fingerprinting’ documents and packaging p475

Unique surface imperfections serve as an easily identifiable feature in the fight against fraud.

James D. R. Buchanan, Russell P. Cowburn, Ana-Vanessa Jausovec, Dorothée Petit, Peter Seem, Gang Xiong, Del Atkinson, Kate Fenton, Dan A. Allwood & Matthew T. Bryan


See also: Editor's summary

Insect defences:  Taste alteration and endoparasites p476

Elizabeth A. Bernays & Michael S. Singer



Brief Communications Arising

Climate:  How unusual is today's solar activity? pE3

Raimund Muscheler, Fortunat Joos, Simon A. Müller & Ian Snowball


Climate:  How unusual is today's solar activity? (reply) pE4

S. K. Solanki, I. G. Usoskin, B. Kromer, M. Schüssler & J. Beer



Outlook: India

Produced with support from:

Outlook: India

India p477


Then and now p478

Inder Verma celebrates the recent success of India's biotechnology industry, applauds the increased investment and looks to the future.


Biotech boom p480

India's thriving biotechnology industry is threatened by a change in the law. Will the current high levels of investment be enough to secure its future? K. S. Jayaraman finds out.


Vaccines on trial p484

One of the largest ever vaccine studies is under way in Kolkata. Paroma Basu uncovers the benefits, and difficulties, of inoculating 60,000 people against cholera and typhoid fever.


India's drug tests p485

Drug companies are converging on India to conduct low-cost clinical trials. But is it ready to become the outsourcing centre for the world? T. V. Padma investigates.


Ayurveda p486

Science and business are racing to tap the 3,000-year-old system of medicine for new drugs, says T. V. Padma.


Breathing life into biology p487

Mriganka Sur says that life sciences will prosper in India once research and teaching reconnect.


Coming home p488

Reagents may be slow to arrive, but the freedom to explore his own research interests more than compensates. Satyajit Mayor is thriving in India.


Rivalry and red tape p490

Researchers are suffering as a result of the conflicts between funding agencies. T. V. Padma uncovers plans to heal the rift.


Among the best p492

India's life-sciences institutes are rewriting the rule books for research. K. S. Jayaraman finds that they are focusing on higher standards and enterprise.


The coming epidemic p496

A staggering 5.1 million people are estimated to be HIV positive in India. Apoorva Mandavilli finds a country on the brink of a crisis.




Experimental investigation of geologically produced antineutrinos with KamLAND p499

T. Araki, S. Enomoto, K. Furuno, Y. Gando, K. Ichimura, H. Ikeda, K. Inoue, Y. Kishimoto, M. Koga, Y. Koseki, T. Maeda, T. Mitsui, M. Motoki, K. Nakajima, H. Ogawa, M. Ogawa, K. Owada, J.-S. Ricol, I. Shimizu, J. Shirai, F. Suekane, A. Suzuki, K. Tada, S. Takeuchi, K. Tamae, Y. Tsuda, H. Watanabe, J. Busenitz, T. Classen, Z. Djurcic, G. Keefer, D. Leonard, A. Piepke, E. Yakushev, B. E. Berger, Y. D. Chan, M. P. Decowski, D. A. Dwyer, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, J. Goldman, F. Gray, K. M. Heeger, L. Hsu, K. T. Lesko, K.-B. Luk, H. Murayama, T. O'Donnell, A. W. P. Poon, H. M. Steiner, L. A. Winslow, C. Mauger, R. D. McKeown, P. Vogel, C. E. Lane, T. Miletic, G. Guillian, J. G. Learned, J. Maricic, S. Matsuno, S. Pakvasa, G. A. Horton-Smith, S. Dazeley, S. Hatakeyama, A. Rojas, R. Svoboda, B. D. Dieterle, J. Detwiler, G. Gratta, K. Ishii, N. Tolich, Y. Uchida, M. Batygov, W. Bugg, Y. Efremenko, Y. Kamyshkov, A. Kozlov, Y. Nakamura, H. J. Karwowski, D. M. Markoff, K. Nakamura, R. M. Rohm, W. Tornow, R. Wendell, M.-J. Chen, Y.-F. Wang & F. Piquemal


See also: Editor's summary

Evidence for magmatic evolution and diversity on Mars from infrared observations p504

P. R. Christensen, H. Y. McSween, Jr, J. L. Bandfield, S. W. Ruff, A. D. Rogers, V. E. Hamilton, N. Gorelick, M. B. Wyatt, B. M. Jakosky, H. H. Kieffer, M. C. Malin & J. E. Moersch


See also: Editor's summary

Systematic analysis of genes required for synapse structure and function p510

Derek Sieburth, QueeLim Ch'ng, Michael Dybbs, Masoud Tavazoie, Scott Kennedy, Duo Wang, Denis Dupuy, Jean-François Rual, David E. Hill, Marc Vidal, Gary Ruvkun & Joshua M. Kaplan


Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to lung p518

Andy J. Minn, Gaorav P. Gupta, Peter M. Siegel, Paula D. Bos, Weiping Shu, Dilip D. Giri, Agnes Viale, Adam B. Olshen, William L. Gerald & Joan Massagué


See also: Editor's summary



The ‘solar model problem’ solved by the abundance of neon in nearby stars p525

Jeremy J. Drake & Paola Testa


See also: Editor's summary

Crossover from ‘mesoscopic’ to ‘universal’ phase for electron transmission in quantum dots p529

M. Avinun-Kalish, M. Heiblum, O. Zarchin, D. Mahalu & V. Umansky


Unconventional critical behaviour in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor p534

F. Kagawa, K. Miyagawa & K. Kanoda


Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers p538

Emilio Mayorga, Anthony K. Aufdenkampe, Caroline A. Masiello, Alex V. Krusche, John I. Hedges, Paul D. Quay, Jeffrey E. Richey & Thomas A. Brown


See also: Editor's summary

A sharp lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary imaged beneath eastern North America p542

Catherine A. Rychert, Karen M. Fischer & Stéphane Rondenay


See also: Editor's summary

Host shift to an invasive plant triggers rapid animal hybrid speciation p546

Dietmar Schwarz, Benjamin M. Matta, Nicole L. Shakir-Botteri & Bruce A. McPheron


Robust habit learning in the absence of awareness and independent of the medial temporal lobe p550

Peter J. Bayley, Jennifer C. Frascino & Larry R. Squire


See also: Editor's summary

Molecular recycling within amyloid fibrils p554

Natàlia Carulla, Gemma L. Caddy, Damien R. Hall, Jesús Zurdo, Margarida Gairí, Miguel Feliz, Ernest Giralt, Carol V. Robinson & Christopher M. Dobson


Action potential refractory period in ureter smooth muscle is set by Ca sparks and BK channels p559

T. Burdyga & Susan Wray


See also: Editor's summary

Somatic control of germline sexual development is mediated by the JAK/STAT pathway p563

Matthew Wawersik, Allison Milutinovich, Abbie L. Casper, Erika Matunis, Brian Williams & Mark Van Doren


Temporal targeting of tumour cells and neovasculature with a nanoscale delivery system p568

Shiladitya Sengupta, David Eavarone, Ishan Capila, Ganlin Zhao, Nicki Watson, Tanyel Kiziltepe & Ram Sasisekharan


See also: Editor's summary

The Lyme disease agent exploits a tick protein to infect the mammalian host p573

Nandhini Ramamoorthi, Sukanya Narasimhan, Utpal Pal, Fukai Bao, Xiaofeng F. Yang, Durland Fish, Juan Anguita, Michael V. Norgard, Fred S. Kantor, John F. Anderson, Raymond A. Koski & Erol Fikrig


See also: Editor's summary

T-cell receptor triggering is critically dependent on the dimensions of its peptide-MHC ligand p578

Kaushik Choudhuri, David Wiseman, Marion H. Brown, Keith Gould & P. Anton van der Merwe


See also: Editor's summary

Functional coordination of intraflagellar transport motors p583

Guangshuo Ou, Oliver E. Blacque, Joshua J. Snow, Michel R. Leroux & Jonathan M. Scholey


Optimality and evolutionary tuning of the expression level of a protein p588

Erez Dekel & Uri Alon


Somatic misexpression of germline P granules and enhanced RNA interference in retinoblastoma pathway mutants p593

Duo Wang, Scott Kennedy, Darryl Conte, Jr, John K. Kim, Harrison W. Gabel, Ravi S. Kamath, Craig C. Mello & Gary Ruvkun





India's changing face p599

Subcontinent is becoming more than an outsourcing outpost

Paul Smaglik


Career Views

Floyd Bloom, chief scientific officer and chairman of the board, Neurome, La Jolla, California p600

Former Science editor thrives on breadth

Floyd Bloom


Recruiters & Academia p600

Open-source offers solutions for science software education

Greg Wilson


Graduate Journal:  Crisis of faith p600

Graduate student evaluates pecking order

Karolina Tkaczuk




The forever kitten p602

Beyond nine lives.

Peter F. Hamilton


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