Table of contents



Climate of distrust p1

Six months into President George W. Bush's second term of office, partisan politics continues to widen the gulf between researchers and the administration.


Rules of engagement p2

Biologists may soon have little option but to sign up to codes of conduct.


Playing the name game p2

Stem-cell biologists should not try to change the definition of the word 'embryo'.



Research Highlights

Research highlights p4




Flu officials pull back from raising global alert level p6

Conflicting results from Vietnam cause concern.

Declan Butler


Climate change: is the US Congress bullying experts? p7

Climate chief Rajendra Pachauri responds to US demands for information.


Parasite infiltrates fruitfly research p8

Geneticists fear Drosophila results skewed by unnoticed bacterium.

Claire Ainsworth


Stem-cell 'heroes' celebrate a series of breakthroughs p9

With fresh initiatives and funding the future is bright, say researchers.

Erika Check


Sidelines p10


Scientists finally get their hands on Kennewick man p10

Bone studies and DNA tests will help determine the origins of the 9,000-year-old skeleton.

Rex Dalton


US willing to pay for Russia's help in space p11

Anti-Iran legislation set to be loosened for fresh deal on space station services.

Tony Reichhardt


Genetic patent singles out Jewish women p12

European ruling on test for breast cancer gene slammed as discriminatory.

Alison Abbott


News in brief p13



News Features

Conservation biology:  Is this any way to save a species? p14

Thanks to the influence of a powerful US senator, more than $120 million has been pumped into research on Alaska's endangered Steller sea lions in just four years. Rex Dalton asks what we've learned.


Neuroscience:  Deep in thought p18

Electrodes implanted in the brain could transform the lives of psychiatric patients. Alison Abbott watched an operation to release a man from his obsessive thoughts.


See also: Editor's summary

Electronic notebooks:  A new leaf p20

Record-keeping in the lab has stayed unchanged for hundreds of years, but today's experiments are putting huge pressure on the old ways. Declan Butler weighs up the pros and cons of electronic alternatives to that dog-eared notebook.


See also: Editor's summary



Computer hardware:  Silicon down to the wire p22

Microchip-makers are starting to look beyond silicon, and what they see, reports Colin Macilwain, is a semiconductor industry of a very different complexion — but not for some time yet.


In brief p23


Market watch p23




Call for openness about farm-animal experiments p24

Ian G. Colditz


Plagiarism criteria ignore the way research evolves p24

Bent Sørensen


Six-word rule could turn description into plagiarism p24

Beverly E. Barton


Penalties plus high-quality review to fight plagiarism p24

Klaus Wittmaack


Editor's note p24



Books and Arts

The race for the bomb p25

How close was Nazi Germany to developing atomic weapons?

Dieter Hoffmann reviews Hitlers Bombe: Die Geheime Geschichte der Deutschen Kernwaffenversuche by Rainer Karlsch


A happy gathering p26

Dylan Evans reviews Happiness: Lessons From a New Science by Richard Layard and Making Happy People: The Nature of Happiness and its Origins in Childhood by Paul Martin and Happiness: The Science Behind Your Smile by Daniel Nettle


Exhibition:  Apollo in the lab p27


New in paperback p27





The mental Universe p29

The only reality is mind and observations, but observations are not of things. To see the Universe as it really is, we must abandon our tendency to conceptualize observations as things.

Richard Conn Henry



News and Views

Neuroscience:  A home for the nicotine habit p31

Nicotine is extremely addictive, but it can also improve cognitive performance. Attempts to unravel the complex pathways underlying these effects pinpoint a single type of receptor in just one brain region.

Julie A. Kauer


See also: Editor's summary

Solid-state physics:  Doping the undopable p32

Impurities that increase the number of electron carriers are essential in most bulk semiconductors. Introducing such foreign atoms into semiconductor nanocrystals is fiddly, and requires exact knowledge of the material's surface.

Giulia Galli


See also: Editor's summary

Cancer biology:  The weakest link? p33

Cellular lineages are defined by master regulatory proteins that dictate their fate and ensure their survival. The dependence on such factors of tumours that are resistant to treatment may prove to be their Achilles' heel.

Glenn Merlino


See also: Editor's summary

Conservation biology:  Where slugs may safely graze p35

Grazing animals mow meadows to useful effect. From the results of experiments on newly established grassland, one such grazer, the little-considered slug, evidently has a big and beneficial influence on plant diversity.

Peter D. Moore


50 and 100 years ago p36


Nonlinear dynamics:  When instability makes sense p36

Mathematical models that use instabilities to describe changes of weather patterns or spacecraft trajectories are well established. Could such principles apply to the sense of smell, and to other aspects of neural computation?

Peter Ashwin and Marc Timme


Correction p37



Brief Communications

Acoustics:  The vocal tract and the sound of a didgeridoo p39

Acoustic measurements show how a player can extract a range of timbres from this primitive instrument.

Alex Tarnopolsky, Neville Fletcher, Lloyd Hollenberg, Benjamin Lange, John Smith and Joe Wolfe


See also: Editor's summary

Palaeoclimatology:  The record for marine isotopic stage 11 p39

Dominique Raynaud, Jean-Marc Barnola, Roland Souchez, Reginald Lorrain, Jean-Robert Petit, Paul Duval and Vladimir Y. Lipenkov



Mars: News and Views

Mars:  Twin studies on Mars p42

The twin Mars Exploration Rovers don't themselves range widely, but the observations they make do. Information on partial solar eclipses, salty rocks and magnetic dust are among the latest highlights of the rovers' findings.

David C. Catling


See also: Editor's summary


Mars: Analysis

Assessment of Mars Exploration Rover landing site predictions p44

M. P. Golombek, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, III, P. R. Christensen, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, B. L. Ehlmann, R. L. Fergason, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, A. F. C. Haldemann, D. M. Kass, T. J. Parker, J. T. Schofield, S. W. Squyres and R. W. Zurek


See also: Editor's summary



An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils p49

Albert S. Yen, Ralf Gellert, Christian Schröder, Richard V. Morris, James F. Bell, III, Amy T. Knudson, Benton C. Clark, Douglas W. Ming, Joy A. Crisp, Raymond E. Arvidson, Diana Blaney, Johannes Brückner, Philip R. Christensen, David J. DesMarais, Paulo A. de Souza, Jr, Thanasis E. Economou, Amitabha Ghosh, Brian C. Hahn, Kenneth E. Herkenhoff, Larry A. Haskin, Joel A. Hurowitz, Bradley L. Joliff, Jeffrey R. Johnson, Göstar Klingelhöfer, Morten Bo Madsen, Scott M. McLennan, Harry Y. McSween, Lutz Richter, Rudi Rieder, Daniel Rodionov, Larry Soderblom, Steven W. Squyres, Nicholas J. Tosca, Alian Wang, Michael Wyatt and Jutta Zipfel



Mars: Letters

Solar eclipses of Phobos and Deimos observed from the surface of Mars p55

J. F. Bell, III, M. T. Lemmon, T. C. Duxbury, M. Y. H. Hubbard, M. J. Wolff, S. W. Squyres, L. Craig and J. M. Ludwinski


See also: Editor's summary

Aeolian processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Meridiani Planum landing site p58

R. Sullivan, D. Banfield, J. F. Bell, III, W. Calvin, D. Fike, M. Golombek, R. Greeley, J. Grotzinger, K. Herkenhoff, D. Jerolmack, M. Malin, D. Ming, L. A. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, S. Thompson, W. A. Watters, C. M. Weitz and A. Yen


See also: Editor's summary

Indication of drier periods on Mars from the chemistry and mineralogy of atmospheric dust p62

Walter Goetz, Preben Bertelsen, Charlotte S. Binau, Haraldur P. Gunnlaugsson, Stubbe F. Hviid, Kjartan M. Kinch, Daniel E. Madsen, Morten B. Madsen, Malte Olsen, Ralf Gellert, Göstar Klingelhöfer, Douglas W. Ming, Richard V. Morris, Rudolf Rieder, Daniel S. Rodionov, Paulo A. de Souza, Jr, Christian Schröder, Steve W. Squyres, Tom Wdowiak and Albert Yen


See also: Editor's summary

Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater p66

Larry A. Haskin, Alian Wang, Bradley L. Jolliff, Harry Y. McSween, Benton C. Clark, David J. Des Marais, Scott M. McLennan, Nicholas J. Tosca, Joel A. Hurowitz, Jack D. Farmer, Albert Yen, Steve W. Squyres, Raymond E. Arvidson, Göstar Klingelhöfer, Christian Schröder, Paulo A. de Souza, Jr, Douglas W. Ming, Ralf Gellert, Jutta Zipfel, Johannes Brückner, James F. Bell, III, Kenneth Herkenhoff, Phil R. Christensen, Steve Ruff, Diana Blaney, Steven Gorevan, Nathalie A. Cabrol, Larry Crumpler, John Grant and Lawrence Soderblom


See also: Editor's summary



Dynamic predictive coding by the retina p71

Toshihiko Hosoya, Stephen A. Baccus and Markus Meister


See also: Editor's summary

Genome-wide analysis of human kinases in clathrin- and caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis p78

Lucas Pelkmans, Eugenio Fava, Hannes Grabner, Michael Hannus, Bianca Habermann, Eberhard Krausz and Marino Zerial


See also: Editor's summary



Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom p87

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup and H. J. Kimble


See also: Editor's summary

Doping semiconductor nanocrystals p91

Steven C. Erwin, Lijun Zu, Michael I. Haftel, Alexander L. Efros, Thomas A. Kennedy and David J. Norris


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Galli

Breaking of Henry's law for noble gas and CO2 solubility in silicate melt under pressure p95

Philippe Sarda and Bertrand Guillot


Generation time and temporal scaling of bird population dynamics p99

Bernt-Erik Sæther, Russell Lande, Steinar Engen, Henri Weimerskirch, Magnar Lillegård, Res Altwegg, Peter H. Becker, Thomas Bregnballe, Jon E. Brommer, Robin H. McCleery, Juha Merilä, Erik Nyholm, Wallace Rendell, Raleigh R. Robertson, Piotr Tryjanowski and Marcel E. Visser


Nicotine reinforcement and cognition restored by targeted expression of nicotinic receptors p103

U. Maskos, B. E. Molles, S. Pons, M. Besson, B. P. Guiard, J.-P. Guilloux, A. Evrard, P. Cazala, A. Cormier, M. Mameli-Engvall, N. Dufour, I. Cloëz-Tayarani, A.-P. Bemelmans, J. Mallet, A. M. Gardier, V. David, P. Faure, S. Granon and J.-P. Changeux


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Kauer

ATP is a mediator of chemosensory transduction in the central nervous system p108

Alexander V. Gourine, Enrique Llaudet, Nicholas Dale and K. Michael Spyer


See also: Editor's summary

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure p112

Yumiko Imai, Keiji Kuba, Shuan Rao, Yi Huan, Feng Guo, Bin Guan, Peng Yang, Renu Sarao, Teiji Wada, Howard Leong-Poi, Michael A. Crackower, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Chi-Chung Hui, Lutz Hein, Stefan Uhlig, Arthur S. Slutsky, Chengyu Jiang and Josef M. Penninger


See also: Editor's summary

Integrative genomic analyses identify MITF as a lineage survival oncogene amplified in malignant melanoma p117

Levi A. Garraway, Hans R. Widlund, Mark A. Rubin, Gad Getz, Aaron J. Berger, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Rameen Beroukhim, Danny A. Milner, Scott R. Granter, Jinyan Du, Charles Lee, Stephan N. Wagner, Cheng Li, Todd R. Golub, David L. Rimm, Matthew L. Meyerson, David E. Fisher and William R. Sellers


See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Merlino

Rac1b and reactive oxygen species mediate MMP-3-induced EMT and genomic instability p123

Derek C. Radisky, Dinah D. Levy, Laurie E. Littlepage, Hong Liu, Celeste M. Nelson, Jimmie E. Fata, Devin Leake, Elizabeth L. Godden, Donna G. Albertson, M. Angela Nieto, Zena Werb and Mina J. Bissell


Kinase-regulated quantal assemblies and kiss-and-run recycling of caveolae p128

Lucas Pelkmans and Marino Zerial


See also: Editor's summary

Molecular basis of photoprotection and control of photosynthetic light-harvesting p134

Andrew A. Pascal, Zhenfeng Liu, Koen Broess, Bart van Oort, Herbert van Amerongen, Chao Wang, Peter Horton, Bruno Robert, Wenrui Chang and Alexander Ruban


See also: Editor's summary

X-ray structure of a tetranucleosome and its implications for the chromatin fibre p138

Thomas Schalch, Sylwia Duda, David F. Sargent and Timothy J. Richmond


See also: Editor's summary




They'll see you now p143

Seeking feedback, whatever the setting, can help you plan for the next stage of your career.

Paul Smaglik



Golden opportunities p144

No longer rivals, Oxford, Cambridge and London are now working towards a common goal — ensuring the 'golden triangle' becomes a global science hub.

Paul Smaglik



Spotlight on UK Golden Triangle




What's expected of us p150

It's a tough choice...

Ted Chiang


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