Table of contents


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Editorials

Climate of distrust p1

Six months into President George W. Bush's second term of office, partisan politics continues to widen the gulf between researchers and the administration.

doi:10.1038/436001a


Rules of engagement p2

Biologists may soon have little option but to sign up to codes of conduct.

doi:10.1038/436002a


Playing the name game p2

Stem-cell biologists should not try to change the definition of the word 'embryo'.

doi:10.1038/436002b


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p4

doi:10.1038/436004a


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News

Flu officials pull back from raising global alert level p6

Conflicting results from Vietnam cause concern.

Declan Butler

doi:10.1038/436006a


Climate change: is the US Congress bullying experts? p7

Climate chief Rajendra Pachauri responds to US demands for information.

doi:10.1038/436007a


Parasite infiltrates fruitfly research p8

Geneticists fear Drosophila results skewed by unnoticed bacterium.

Claire Ainsworth

doi:10.1038/436008a


Stem-cell 'heroes' celebrate a series of breakthroughs p9

With fresh initiatives and funding the future is bright, say researchers.

Erika Check

doi:10.1038/436009a


Sidelines p10

doi:10.1038/436010a


Scientists finally get their hands on Kennewick man p10

Bone studies and DNA tests will help determine the origins of the 9,000-year-old skeleton.

Rex Dalton

doi:10.1038/436010b


US willing to pay for Russia's help in space p11

Anti-Iran legislation set to be loosened for fresh deal on space station services.

Tony Reichhardt

doi:10.1038/436011a


Genetic patent singles out Jewish women p12

European ruling on test for breast cancer gene slammed as discriminatory.

Alison Abbott

doi:10.1038/436012a


News in brief p13

doi:10.1038/436013a


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News Features

Conservation biology:  Is this any way to save a species? p14

Thanks to the influence of a powerful US senator, more than $120 million has been pumped into research on Alaska's endangered Steller sea lions in just four years. Rex Dalton asks what we've learned.

doi:10.1038/436014a


Neuroscience:  Deep in thought p18

Electrodes implanted in the brain could transform the lives of psychiatric patients. Alison Abbott watched an operation to release a man from his obsessive thoughts.

doi:10.1038/436018a

See also: Editor's summary


Electronic notebooks:  A new leaf p20

Record-keeping in the lab has stayed unchanged for hundreds of years, but today's experiments are putting huge pressure on the old ways. Declan Butler weighs up the pros and cons of electronic alternatives to that dog-eared notebook.

doi:10.1038/436020a

See also: Editor's summary


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Business

Computer hardware:  Silicon down to the wire p22

Microchip-makers are starting to look beyond silicon, and what they see, reports Colin Macilwain, is a semiconductor industry of a very different complexion — but not for some time yet.

doi:10.1038/436022a


In brief p23

doi:10.1038/436023a


Market watch p23

doi:10.1038/436023b


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Correspondence

Call for openness about farm-animal experiments p24

Ian G. Colditz

doi:10.1038/436024a


Plagiarism criteria ignore the way research evolves p24

Bent Sørensen

doi:10.1038/436024b


Six-word rule could turn description into plagiarism p24

Beverly E. Barton

doi:10.1038/436024c


Penalties plus high-quality review to fight plagiarism p24

Klaus Wittmaack

doi:10.1038/436024d


Editor's note p24

doi:10.1038/436024e


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Books and Arts

The race for the bomb p25

How close was Nazi Germany to developing atomic weapons?

Dieter Hoffmann reviews Hitlers Bombe: Die Geheime Geschichte der Deutschen Kernwaffenversuche by Rainer Karlsch

doi:10.1038/436025a


A happy gathering p26

Dylan Evans reviews Happiness: Lessons From a New Science by Richard Layard and Making Happy People: The Nature of Happiness and its Origins in Childhood by Paul Martin and Happiness: The Science Behind Your Smile by Daniel Nettle

doi:10.1038/436026a


Exhibition:  Apollo in the lab p27

doi:10.1038/436027a


New in paperback p27

doi:10.1038/436027b


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Essay

Concept

The mental Universe p29

The only reality is mind and observations, but observations are not of things. To see the Universe as it really is, we must abandon our tendency to conceptualize observations as things.

Richard Conn Henry

doi:10.1038/436029a


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News and Views

Neuroscience:  A home for the nicotine habit p31

Nicotine is extremely addictive, but it can also improve cognitive performance. Attempts to unravel the complex pathways underlying these effects pinpoint a single type of receptor in just one brain region.

Julie A. Kauer

doi:10.1038/436031a

See also: Editor's summary


Solid-state physics:  Doping the undopable p32

Impurities that increase the number of electron carriers are essential in most bulk semiconductors. Introducing such foreign atoms into semiconductor nanocrystals is fiddly, and requires exact knowledge of the material's surface.

Giulia Galli

doi:10.1038/436032a

See also: Editor's summary


Cancer biology:  The weakest link? p33

Cellular lineages are defined by master regulatory proteins that dictate their fate and ensure their survival. The dependence on such factors of tumours that are resistant to treatment may prove to be their Achilles' heel.

Glenn Merlino

doi:10.1038/436033a

See also: Editor's summary


Conservation biology:  Where slugs may safely graze p35

Grazing animals mow meadows to useful effect. From the results of experiments on newly established grassland, one such grazer, the little-considered slug, evidently has a big and beneficial influence on plant diversity.

Peter D. Moore

doi:10.1038/436035a


50 and 100 years ago p36

doi:10.1038/436036a


Nonlinear dynamics:  When instability makes sense p36

Mathematical models that use instabilities to describe changes of weather patterns or spacecraft trajectories are well established. Could such principles apply to the sense of smell, and to other aspects of neural computation?

Peter Ashwin and Marc Timme

doi:10.1038/436036b


Correction p37

doi:10.1038/436037a


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Brief Communications

Acoustics:  The vocal tract and the sound of a didgeridoo p39

Acoustic measurements show how a player can extract a range of timbres from this primitive instrument.

Alex Tarnopolsky, Neville Fletcher, Lloyd Hollenberg, Benjamin Lange, John Smith and Joe Wolfe

doi:10.1038/43639a

See also: Editor's summary


Palaeoclimatology:  The record for marine isotopic stage 11 p39

Dominique Raynaud, Jean-Marc Barnola, Roland Souchez, Reginald Lorrain, Jean-Robert Petit, Paul Duval and Vladimir Y. Lipenkov

doi:10.1038/43639b


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Mars: News and Views

Mars:  Twin studies on Mars p42

The twin Mars Exploration Rovers don't themselves range widely, but the observations they make do. Information on partial solar eclipses, salty rocks and magnetic dust are among the latest highlights of the rovers' findings.

David C. Catling

doi:10.1038/436042a

See also: Editor's summary


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Mars: Analysis

Assessment of Mars Exploration Rover landing site predictions p44

M. P. Golombek, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, III, P. R. Christensen, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, B. L. Ehlmann, R. L. Fergason, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, A. F. C. Haldemann, D. M. Kass, T. J. Parker, J. T. Schofield, S. W. Squyres and R. W. Zurek

doi:10.1038/nature03600

See also: Editor's summary


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Article

An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils p49

Albert S. Yen, Ralf Gellert, Christian Schröder, Richard V. Morris, James F. Bell, III, Amy T. Knudson, Benton C. Clark, Douglas W. Ming, Joy A. Crisp, Raymond E. Arvidson, Diana Blaney, Johannes Brückner, Philip R. Christensen, David J. DesMarais, Paulo A. de Souza, Jr, Thanasis E. Economou, Amitabha Ghosh, Brian C. Hahn, Kenneth E. Herkenhoff, Larry A. Haskin, Joel A. Hurowitz, Bradley L. Joliff, Jeffrey R. Johnson, Göstar Klingelhöfer, Morten Bo Madsen, Scott M. McLennan, Harry Y. McSween, Lutz Richter, Rudi Rieder, Daniel Rodionov, Larry Soderblom, Steven W. Squyres, Nicholas J. Tosca, Alian Wang, Michael Wyatt and Jutta Zipfel

doi:10.1038/nature03637


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Mars: Letters

Solar eclipses of Phobos and Deimos observed from the surface of Mars p55

J. F. Bell, III, M. T. Lemmon, T. C. Duxbury, M. Y. H. Hubbard, M. J. Wolff, S. W. Squyres, L. Craig and J. M. Ludwinski

doi:10.1038/nature03437

See also: Editor's summary


Aeolian processes at the Mars Exploration Rover Meridiani Planum landing site p58

R. Sullivan, D. Banfield, J. F. Bell, III, W. Calvin, D. Fike, M. Golombek, R. Greeley, J. Grotzinger, K. Herkenhoff, D. Jerolmack, M. Malin, D. Ming, L. A. Soderblom, S. W. Squyres, S. Thompson, W. A. Watters, C. M. Weitz and A. Yen

doi:10.1038/nature03641

See also: Editor's summary


Indication of drier periods on Mars from the chemistry and mineralogy of atmospheric dust p62

Walter Goetz, Preben Bertelsen, Charlotte S. Binau, Haraldur P. Gunnlaugsson, Stubbe F. Hviid, Kjartan M. Kinch, Daniel E. Madsen, Morten B. Madsen, Malte Olsen, Ralf Gellert, Göstar Klingelhöfer, Douglas W. Ming, Richard V. Morris, Rudolf Rieder, Daniel S. Rodionov, Paulo A. de Souza, Jr, Christian Schröder, Steve W. Squyres, Tom Wdowiak and Albert Yen

doi:10.1038/nature03807

See also: Editor's summary


Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater p66

Larry A. Haskin, Alian Wang, Bradley L. Jolliff, Harry Y. McSween, Benton C. Clark, David J. Des Marais, Scott M. McLennan, Nicholas J. Tosca, Joel A. Hurowitz, Jack D. Farmer, Albert Yen, Steve W. Squyres, Raymond E. Arvidson, Göstar Klingelhöfer, Christian Schröder, Paulo A. de Souza, Jr, Douglas W. Ming, Ralf Gellert, Jutta Zipfel, Johannes Brückner, James F. Bell, III, Kenneth Herkenhoff, Phil R. Christensen, Steve Ruff, Diana Blaney, Steven Gorevan, Nathalie A. Cabrol, Larry Crumpler, John Grant and Lawrence Soderblom

doi:10.1038/nature03640

See also: Editor's summary


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Articles

Dynamic predictive coding by the retina p71

Toshihiko Hosoya, Stephen A. Baccus and Markus Meister

doi:10.1038/nature03689

See also: Editor's summary


Genome-wide analysis of human kinases in clathrin- and caveolae/raft-mediated endocytosis p78

Lucas Pelkmans, Eugenio Fava, Hannes Grabner, Michael Hannus, Bianca Habermann, Eberhard Krausz and Marino Zerial

doi:10.1038/nature03571

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

Photon blockade in an optical cavity with one trapped atom p87

K. M. Birnbaum, A. Boca, R. Miller, A. D. Boozer, T. E. Northup and H. J. Kimble

doi:10.1038/nature03804

See also: Editor's summary


Doping semiconductor nanocrystals p91

Steven C. Erwin, Lijun Zu, Michael I. Haftel, Alexander L. Efros, Thomas A. Kennedy and David J. Norris

doi:10.1038/nature03832

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Galli


Breaking of Henry's law for noble gas and CO2 solubility in silicate melt under pressure p95

Philippe Sarda and Bertrand Guillot

doi:10.1038/nature03636


Generation time and temporal scaling of bird population dynamics p99

Bernt-Erik Sæther, Russell Lande, Steinar Engen, Henri Weimerskirch, Magnar Lillegård, Res Altwegg, Peter H. Becker, Thomas Bregnballe, Jon E. Brommer, Robin H. McCleery, Juha Merilä, Erik Nyholm, Wallace Rendell, Raleigh R. Robertson, Piotr Tryjanowski and Marcel E. Visser

doi:10.1038/nature03666


Nicotine reinforcement and cognition restored by targeted expression of nicotinic receptors p103

U. Maskos, B. E. Molles, S. Pons, M. Besson, B. P. Guiard, J.-P. Guilloux, A. Evrard, P. Cazala, A. Cormier, M. Mameli-Engvall, N. Dufour, I. Cloëz-Tayarani, A.-P. Bemelmans, J. Mallet, A. M. Gardier, V. David, P. Faure, S. Granon and J.-P. Changeux

doi:10.1038/nature03694

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Kauer


ATP is a mediator of chemosensory transduction in the central nervous system p108

Alexander V. Gourine, Enrique Llaudet, Nicholas Dale and K. Michael Spyer

doi:10.1038/nature03690

See also: Editor's summary


Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure p112

Yumiko Imai, Keiji Kuba, Shuan Rao, Yi Huan, Feng Guo, Bin Guan, Peng Yang, Renu Sarao, Teiji Wada, Howard Leong-Poi, Michael A. Crackower, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Chi-Chung Hui, Lutz Hein, Stefan Uhlig, Arthur S. Slutsky, Chengyu Jiang and Josef M. Penninger

doi:10.1038/nature03712

See also: Editor's summary


Integrative genomic analyses identify MITF as a lineage survival oncogene amplified in malignant melanoma p117

Levi A. Garraway, Hans R. Widlund, Mark A. Rubin, Gad Getz, Aaron J. Berger, Sridhar Ramaswamy, Rameen Beroukhim, Danny A. Milner, Scott R. Granter, Jinyan Du, Charles Lee, Stephan N. Wagner, Cheng Li, Todd R. Golub, David L. Rimm, Matthew L. Meyerson, David E. Fisher and William R. Sellers

doi:10.1038/nature03664

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Merlino


Rac1b and reactive oxygen species mediate MMP-3-induced EMT and genomic instability p123

Derek C. Radisky, Dinah D. Levy, Laurie E. Littlepage, Hong Liu, Celeste M. Nelson, Jimmie E. Fata, Devin Leake, Elizabeth L. Godden, Donna G. Albertson, M. Angela Nieto, Zena Werb and Mina J. Bissell

doi:10.1038/nature03688


Kinase-regulated quantal assemblies and kiss-and-run recycling of caveolae p128

Lucas Pelkmans and Marino Zerial

doi:10.1038/nature03866

See also: Editor's summary


Molecular basis of photoprotection and control of photosynthetic light-harvesting p134

Andrew A. Pascal, Zhenfeng Liu, Koen Broess, Bart van Oort, Herbert van Amerongen, Chao Wang, Peter Horton, Bruno Robert, Wenrui Chang and Alexander Ruban

doi:10.1038/nature03795

See also: Editor's summary


X-ray structure of a tetranucleosome and its implications for the chromatin fibre p138

Thomas Schalch, Sylwia Duda, David F. Sargent and Timothy J. Richmond

doi:10.1038/nature03686

See also: Editor's summary


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Naturejobs

Prospect

They'll see you now p143

Seeking feedback, whatever the setting, can help you plan for the next stage of your career.

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7047-143a


Region

Golden opportunities p144

No longer rivals, Oxford, Cambridge and London are now working towards a common goal — ensuring the 'golden triangle' becomes a global science hub.

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7047-144a


Spotlight

Spotlight on UK Golden Triangle

doi:10.1038/nj0073


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Futures

What's expected of us p150

It's a tough choice...

Ted Chiang

doi:10.1038/436150a


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