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Risks and benefits of dual-use research p855

Negotiations over a sensitive scientific publication that could be misused by bioterrorists highlight trouble ahead unless appropriate guidelines are developed.

doi: 10.1038/435855a

Save the people, too p855

Conservationists must pay attention to the needs of local human, as well as animal, populations.

doi: 10.1038/435855b

Much whaling and gnashing of teeth p856

The International Whaling Commission may be messy, but it's the only game in town.

doi: 10.1038/435856a


Research Highlights

Research highlights p858

doi: 10.1038/435858a



Biologists asked to breed a culture of responsibility in face of terrorism p860

International conference says scientists must face up to the risks of their own research.

Erika Check

doi: 10.1038/435860a

US teams join hands to build dexterous robots p861

Competition with Asia prompts united effort in robotics.

Gregory Huang

doi: 10.1038/435861a

Whaling divisions deepen as Japan pushes for credibility p861

Pro-whaling allies likely to edge their first majority at international whaling conference.

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/435861b

Gloomy outlook for Blair p862

British prime minister Tony Blair hopes to make significant progress on climate change at the upcoming G8 summit. The United States is standing in his way, but his efforts may at least benefit climate research.

doi: 10.1038/435862a

Geologists call time on dating dispute p865

Relations thaw as opposing sides vote on what to call latest geological period.

Jim Giles

doi: 10.1038/435865a

Sidelines p866

doi: 10.1038/435866a

German tobacco papers reveal lump sums for health experts p866

Critics say payments responsible for country's lax smoking laws.

Quirin Schiermeier

doi: 10.1038/435866b

Look out for rough drafts of mammal genomes p867

Biologists disappointed that many new genome project species will get only low-density coverage.

Erika Check

doi: 10.1038/435867a

News in brief p868

doi: 10.1038/435868a


News Features

Conservation in Myanmar:  Under the gun p870

Western conservation biologists working in Myanmar have been accused of colluding with a brutal military regime — charges they deny. Duncan Graham-Rowe reports from this pariah state.

doi: 10.1038/435870a

See also: Editor's summary

Science education:  Hothouse High p874

Do US high schools dedicated to science generate future academics or burnt-out whiz kids? Kendall Powell catches up with some of the first pupils to graduate from 'nerd school'.

doi: 10.1038/435874a

See also: Editor's summary

Stem-cell therapies:  The first wave p877

Treatments that use stem cells to replace damaged or diseased tissues are thought to lie many years away. But the cells might find other clinical applications in the near future, says Catherine Zandonella.

doi: 10.1038/435877a



No longer the upstart p879

The US biotechnology industry's lobby shop is at last making its mark. Its incoming president may have taken some flak for quitting Congress but, as Meredith Wadman discovers, he's relishing the change.

doi: 10.1038/435879a



Coordinating vaccine use is best way to combat polio p881

Irving S. Johnson

doi: 10.1038/435881a

Don't drop current vaccine until we have new ones p881

Vadim I. Agol, Konstantin Chumakov, Ellie Ehrenfeld and Eckard Wimmer

doi: 10.1038/435881b

Images: keep a distinction between beauty and truth p881

Daniel A. Peterson

doi: 10.1038/435881c



Japan's whaling plan under scrutiny p883

Useful science or unregulated commercial whaling? Nicholas J. Gales, Toshio Kasuya, Phillip J. Clapham and Robert L. Brownell Jr consider the scientific merits of Japan's whaling activities.

doi: 10.1038/435883a

See also: Editor's summary


Books and Arts

Crash and burn p885

Even 'artificial organisms' such as commercial companies find immortality out of reach.

Adrian Woolfson reviews Why Most Things Fail: Evolution, Extinction and Economics by Paul Ormerod

doi: 10.1038/435885a

See also: Editor's summary

Politics and disease p886

Adrian Sleigh reviews Twenty-First Century Plague: The Story of SARS by Thomas Abraham

doi: 10.1038/435886a

The power of collecting p887

Brendan Tobin reviews Trading the Genome by Bronwyn Parry

doi: 10.1038/435887a

Science in culture:  Trees of knowledge p888

Georg Lichtenberg visualized a new branch of science.

Martin Kemp

doi: 10.1038/435888a


News and Views

Low-temperature physics:  Tunnelling into the chill p889

The trend towards ever smaller electronic instruments had left refrigerators out in the cold. Now a practical, compact device uses quantum mechanical tunnelling to cool close to absolute zero.

Jukka Pekola

doi: 10.1038/435889a

Genetics:  LINEs in mind p890

At least half the human genome consists of mobile elements, such as LINEs, some of which can jump around the genome. These elements have been crucial in genome evolution, but they may also contribute to human diversity.

Eric M. Ostertag and Haig H. Kazazian, Jr

doi: 10.1038/435890a

See also: Editor's summary

Malaria:  Fungal allies enlisted p891

The mosquito-killing capabilities of fungi can in principle be deployed in the fight against malaria. But long experience of unfulfilled hopes in this complex arena shows the need to proceed cautiously.

Yannis Michalakis and François Renaud

doi: 10.1038/435891a

Engineering:  Skimming the surface p893

Models of the microscopic contact area between two surfaces work surprisingly well, or fail completely, depending on the aspects of adhesion or friction being investigated. A simulation now shows how the details matter.

Jacob N. Israelachvili

doi: 10.1038/435893a

50 and 100 years ago p894

doi: 10.1038/435894a

Cell biology:  Powerful curves p895

A cell's contents are organized by a scaffolding of microtubules. These long, thin polymers continuously grow and shrink, and the structures of two forms of the constituent protein provide clues to how this occurs.

L. Mahadevan and T. J. Mitchison

doi: 10.1038/435895a

Nuclear physics:  Elusive magic numbers p897

Gaps in nuclear levels, which cause nuclei with 'magic' numbers of protons or neutrons to be especially stable, seem to be different for nuclei with an excess of neutrons. But are all magic numbers aberrant in exotic species?

Robert V. F. Janssens

doi: 10.1038/435897a

See also: Editor's summary

Developmental biology:  One source for muscle p898

Producing muscle as an embryo, and making or repairing it as an adult, could be considered to be quite different processes. But it seems that cells that share a common origin carry out both of these tasks.

Iain W. McKinnell and Michael A. Rudnicki

doi: 10.1038/435898a

See also: Editor's summary

Cell biology:  New cog for a familiar machine p899

During cell division, intricate cellular machinery separates duplicated DNA into daughter cells. Unexpectedly, the assembly of this crucial apparatus seems to rely on components other than proteins and DNA.

Mary Dasso

doi: 10.1038/435899a

Corrections p900

doi: 10.1038/435900a


Brief Communications

Genetics:  Relatedness among east African coelacanths p901

Scattered groups of these ancient fish may all stem from a single remote population.

Manfred Schartl, Ute Hornung, Karen Hissmann, Jürgen Schauer and Hans Fricke

doi: 10.1038/435901a

See also: Editor's summary


Brief Communications Arising

Food-web topology:  Universal scaling in food-web structure? pE3

J. Camacho and A. Arenas

doi: 10.1038/nature03839

Food-web topology:  Universal scaling in food-web structure? (reply) pE4

Diego Garlaschelli, Guido Caldarelli and Luciano Pietronero

doi: 10.1038/nature03840



Somatic mosaicism in neuronal precursor cells mediated by L1 retrotransposition p903

Alysson R. Muotri, Vi T. Chu, Maria C. N. Marchetto, Wei Deng, John V. Moran and Fred H. Gage

doi: 10.1038/nature03663

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Ostertag & Kazazian

Nucleotide-dependent bending flexibility of tubulin regulates microtubule assembly p911

Hong-Wei Wang and Eva Nogales

doi: 10.1038/nature03606

See also: News and Views by Mahadevan & Mitchison



Widespread magma oceans on asteroidal bodies in the early Solar System p916

Richard C. Greenwood, Ian A. Franchi, Albert Jambon and Paul C. Buchanan

doi: 10.1038/nature03612

See also: Editor's summary

High-frequency acoustic waves are not sufficient to heat the solar chromosphere p919

Astrid Fossum and Mats Carlsson

doi: 10.1038/nature03695

See also: Editor's summary

'Magic' nucleus 42Si p922

J. Fridmann, I. Wiedenhöver, A. Gade, L. T. Baby, D. Bazin, B. A. Brown, C. M. Campbell, J. M. Cook, P. D. Cottle, E. Diffenderfer, D.-C. Dinca, T. Glasmacher, P. G. Hansen, K. W. Kemper, J. L. Lecouey, W. F. Mueller, H. Olliver, E. Rodriguez-Vieitez, J. R. Terry, J. A. Tostevin and K. Yoneda

doi: 10.1038/nature03619

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Janssens

Triplet−singlet spin relaxation via nuclei in a double quantum dot p925

A. C. Johnson, J. R. Petta, J. M. Taylor, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, C. M. Marcus, M. P. Hanson and A. C. Gossard

doi: 10.1038/nature03815

See also: Editor's summary

The breakdown of continuum models for mechanical contacts p929

Binquan Luan and Mark O. Robbins

doi: 10.1038/nature03700

See also: News and Views by Israelachvili

Extent, duration and speed of the 2004 Sumatra−Andaman earthquake imaged by the Hi-Net array p933

Miaki Ishii, Peter M. Shearer, Heidi Houston and John E. Vidale

doi: 10.1038/nature03675

See also: Editor's summary

Tracking the rupture of the Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake over 1,150 km at teleseismic distance p937

Frank Krüger and Matthias Ohrnberger

doi: 10.1038/nature03696

See also: Editor's summary

Cortical growth marks reveal extended juvenile development in New Zealand moa p940

Samuel T. Turvey, Owen R. Green and Richard N. Holdaway

doi: 10.1038/nature03635

See also: Editor's summary

The initiation of liver development is dependent on Foxa transcription factors p944

Catherine S. Lee, Joshua R. Friedman, James T. Fulmer and Klaus H. Kaestner

doi: 10.1038/nature03649

See also: Editor's summary

A Pax3/Pax7-dependent population of skeletal muscle progenitor cells p948

Frédéric Relaix, Didier Rocancourt, Ahmed Mansouri and Margaret Buckingham

doi: 10.1038/nature03594

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by McKinnell & Rudnicki

A common somitic origin for embryonic muscle progenitors and satellite cells p954

Jérôme Gros, Marie Manceau, Virginie Thomé and Christophe Marcelle

doi: 10.1038/nature03572

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by McKinnell & Rudnicki

Notch/bold gamma-secretase inhibition turns proliferative cells in intestinal crypts and adenomas into goblet cells p959

Johan H. van Es, Marielle E. van Gijn, Orbicia Riccio, Maaike van den Born, Marc Vooijs, Harry Begthel, Miranda Cozijnsen, Sylvie Robine, Doug J. Winton, Freddy Radtke and Hans Clevers

doi: 10.1038/nature03659

See also: Editor's summary

Notch signals control the fate of immature progenitor cells in the intestine p964

Silvia Fre, Mathilde Huyghe, Philippos Mourikis, Sylvie Robine, Daniel Louvard and Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas

doi: 10.1038/nature03589

See also: Editor's summary

In vivo imaging of specialized bone marrow endothelial microdomains for tumour engraftment p969

Dorothy A. Sipkins, Xunbin Wei, Juwell W. Wu, Judith M. Runnels, Daniel Côté, Terry K. Means, Andrew D. Luster, David T. Scadden and Charles P. Lin

doi: 10.1038/nature03703

See also: Editor's summary

Stem cell division is regulated by the microRNA pathway p974

S. D. Hatfield, H. R. Shcherbata, K. A. Fischer, K. Nakahara, R. W. Carthew and H. Ruohola-Baker

doi: 10.1038/nature03816

See also: Editor's summary

Crystal structure of thymine DNA glycosylase conjugated to SUMO-1 p979

Daichi Baba, Nobuo Maita, Jun-Goo Jee, Yasuhiro Uchimura, Hisato Saitoh, Kaoru Sugasawa, Fumio Hanaoka, Hidehito Tochio, Hidekazu Hiroaki and Masahiro Shirakawa

doi: 10.1038/nature03634

Structural basis for the promiscuous biosynthetic prenylation of aromatic natural products p983

Tomohisa Kuzuyama, Joseph P. Noel and Stéphane B. Richard

doi: 10.1038/nature03668


Technology Features

Genomics:  Getting down to details p991

MicroRNAs that tweak gene expression, single nucleotide polymorphisms in population genetics, and individual genome sequencing: Caitlin Smith takes a look at three fast-moving areas in genomics.

Caitlin Smith

doi: 10.1038/435991a

Genomics:  Big tasks for small molecules p991

doi: 10.1038/435991b

Genomics:  Genotyping gets up to speed p992

doi: 10.1038/435992a

Genomics:  SNPs and human disease p993

doi: 10.1038/435993a

Table of suppliers p995

doi: 10.1038/435995a




A global view p997

Paul Smaglik



An eastern promise of regeneration p998

The East Coast corridor of New Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania is poised for renewed growth in biomedicine. Claudia Caruana investigates.

Claudia Caruana



Spotlight on Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey




Damned if you don't p1002

A casual conversation.

Lucy Bergman

doi: 10.1038/4351002a

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