Table of contents



All or nothing at Fermilab p713

These days, it takes a brave laboratory to hitch its future to the construction of a brand-new particle accelerator — but Fermilab has elected to do just that.

doi: 10.1038/435713a

Kyoto — the sequel p713

Better knowledge of the carbon cycle could provide a basis for future climate-change agreements.

doi: 10.1038/435713b

Talent worth nurturing p714

More should be done to draw people with disabilities into scientific careers.

doi: 10.1038/435714a


Research Highlights

Research highlights p716

doi: 10.1038/435716a



Chemistry society goes head to head with NIH in fight over public database p718

Free molecule registry triggers the wrath of a larger, fee-based effort.

Emma Marris

doi: 10.1038/435718a

One in three scientists confesses to having sinned p718

Misconduct ranges from faking results outright to dropping suspect data points.

Meredith Wadman

doi: 10.1038/435718b

Blue Brain boots up to mixed response p720

Swiss supercomputer faces brainy task of modelling neural circuits.

Jim Giles

doi: 10.1038/435720a

Europe halts decisions on stem-cell patents p720

Ethical concerns put applications on hold indefinitely.

Sonja Schubert

doi: 10.1038/435720b

Soap opera reaps prize for its clean message p723

Radio programme entertains but also educates about sustainable farming practices.

Jessica Ebert

doi: 10.1038/435723a

Snapshot:  Sunlight on an icy martian crater p723

First three-dimensional colour image reveals a frozen wonder.

doi: 10.1038/435723b

Sidelines p724

doi: 10.1038/435724a

Pall hangs over desert's future as alien weeds fuel wildfires p724

Invasive species add to fire risk in Sonoran ecosystem.

Quirin Schiermeier

doi: 10.1038/435724b

Evolutionist row makes museum ditch donation p725

But intelligent-design group will show movie on Smithsonian premises.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi: 10.1038/435725a

News in brief p726

doi: 10.1038/435726a

Correction p726

doi: 10.1038/435726b


News Features

Fermilab:  High-risk physics p728

In the world of billion-dollar particle physics, one lab is taking an enormous gamble on its future. Geoff Brumfiel takes a look at Fermilab's hopes to host the next big machine.

doi: 10.1038/435728a

See also: Editor's summary

Space physiology:  Lie back and think of science p730

Twelve women have taken to bed for two months in the name of space research. Nicola Jones joins them for a few days, and asks what physiologists hope to learn from this marathon lie-in.

doi: 10.1038/435730a

Climate change:  That sinking feeling p732

Siberia's vast forests absorb huge quantities of carbon from the atmosphere. But how much, and will they continue to do so in a warming world? Quirin Schiermeier speaks to the carbon accountants.

doi: 10.1038/435732a



Touched by an angel p734

Looking for a fairy godmother to back a brilliant business idea? As Tony Reichhardt reports, a group of them probably meets for breakfast once a month at a hotel near you.

Tony Reichhardt

doi: 10.1038/435734a

In brief p735

doi: 10.1038/435735a

Market watch p735

doi: 10.1038/435735b



Controls on exports will defend security, without harming labs p736

Peter Lichtenbaum

doi: 10.1038/435736a

Veracity of raw images can also come into question p736

Jeremy Adler

doi: 10.1038/435736b

Academic boycott would damage chances for peace p736

John R. Cohn

doi: 10.1038/435736c

A boycott could do good in Israel, as in South Africa p736

Rita Giacaman, Jacqueline Sfeir and Ismat al-Shakhshir

doi: 10.1038/435736d



Scientists behaving badly p737

To protect the integrity of science, we must look beyond falsification, fabrication and plagiarism, to a wider range of questionable research practices, argue Brian C. Martinson, Melissa S. Anderson and Raymond de Vries.

doi: 10.1038/435737a

See also: Editor's summary


Books and Arts

Born to greatness? p739

Staking a claim in history for one of the driving forces behind quantum mechanics.

Kurt Gottfried reviews The End of the Certain World: The Life and Science of Max Born by Nancy Thorndike Greenspan

doi: 10.1038/435739a

Acting on instinct p740

Johan J. Bolhuis reviews Patterns of Behavior: Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and the Founding of Ethology by Richard W. Burkhardt, Jr

doi: 10.1038/435740a

Dance: Einstein in motion p741

Alison Wright reviews

doi: 10.1038/435741a



Physics, complexity and causality p743

Although the laws of physics explain much of the world around us, we still do not have a realistic description of causality in truly complex hierarchical structures.

George F. R. Ellis

doi: 10.1038/435743a

See also: Editor's summary


News and Views

Cancer genomics:  Small RNAs with big impacts p745

Although they are tiny, microRNAs can have large-scale effects because they regulate a variety of genes. These minuscule molecules are now definitively linked to the development of cancer.

Paul S. Meltzer

doi: 10.1038/435745a

See also: Editor's summary

Organic chemistry:  Fast reactions 'on water' p746

Efficient reactions in aqueous organic chemistry do not require soluble reactants, as had been thought. A newly developed 'on-water' protocol is characterized by short reaction times, and the products are easy to isolate.

Jaap E. Klijn and Jan B. F. N. Engberts

doi: 10.1038/435746a

Structural biology:  Prying into prions p747

Various aberrant protein forms are the subject of intense research. It is not easy to probe their structures, but studies that have done so provide telling information about their biological properties.

Christopher M. Dobson

doi: 10.1038/435747a

See also: Editor's summary

50 and 100 years ago p748

doi: 10.1038/435748a

Planetary science:  Shades of Titan p749

Instruments aboard the Cassini spacecraft can 'see' through the dense atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon. Returned images hint at the existence of features such as ridges and valleys, and perhaps an icy volcano.

Louise Prockter

doi: 10.1038/435749a

See also: Editor's summary

Plant−fungal associations:  Cue for the branching connection p750

Plant roots release potent molecules that activate symbiotic fungi and initiate a harmonious relationship. It turns out that the same compounds are detected by parasitic weeds for less benign purposes.

Martin Parniske

doi: 10.1038/435750a

See also: Editor's summary

Computational science:  Can get satisfaction p751

The sheer complexity of some computational problems means they will probably never be solved, despite the ever-increasing resources available. But we can sometimes predict under what conditions solutions exist.

Carla P. Gomes and Bart Selman

doi: 10.1038/435751a

See also: Editor's summary

Cancer:  Inflammation by remote control p752

Smouldering beneath many latent tumours is a chronic inflammation that goads pre-malignant cells into becoming full-blown cancer. The spark that kindles these flames comes from an unexpected source.

Alberto Mantovani

doi: 10.1038/435752a


Brief Communications

Brevetoxicosis:  Red tides and marine mammal mortalities p755

Unexpected brevetoxin vectors may account for deaths long after or remote from an algal bloom.

Leanne J. Flewelling, Jerome P. Naar, Jay P. Abbott, Daniel G. Baden, Nélio B. Barros, Gregory D. Bossart, Marie-Yasmine D. Bottein, Daniel G. Hammond, Elsa M. Haubold, Cynthia A. Heil, Michael S. Henry, Henry M. Jacocks, Tod A. Leighfield, Richard H. Pierce, Thomas D. Pitchford, Sentiel A. Rommel, Paula S. Scott, Karen A. Steidinger, Earnest W. Truby, Frances M. Van Dolah and Jan H. Landsberg

doi: 10.1038/nature435755a

See also: Editor's summary

Seismology:  Earthquake risk on the Sunda trench p756

Suleyman S. Nalbant, Sandy Steacy, Kerry Sieh, Danny Natawidjaja and John McCloskey

doi: 10.1038/nature435756a

See also: Editor's summary

Plant biochemistry:  Anthocyanin biosynthesis in roses p757

Jun Ogata, Yoshiaki Kanno, Yoshio Itoh, Hidehito Tsugawa and Masahiko Suzuki

doi: 10.1038/nature435757a



Rigorous location of phase transitions in hard optimization problems p759

Dimitris Achlioptas, Assaf Naor and Yuval Peres

doi: 10.1038/nature03602

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Gomes & Selman

Structural insights into a yeast prion illuminate nucleation and strain diversity p765

Rajaraman Krishnan and Susan L. Lindquist

doi: 10.1038/nature03679

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Dobson

Structure of the cross-beta spine of amyloid-like fibrils p773

Rebecca Nelson, Michael R. Sawaya, Melinda Balbirnie, Anders Ø. Madsen, Christian Riekel, Robert Grothe and David Eisenberg

doi: 10.1038/nature03680

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Dobson

The structure of the myosin VI motor reveals the mechanism of directionality reversal p779

Julie Ménétrey, Amel Bahloul, Amber L. Wells, Christopher M. Yengo, Carl A. Morris, H. Lee Sweeney and Anne Houdusse

doi: 10.1038/nature03592

See also: Editor's summary



Release of volatiles from a possible cryovolcano from near-infrared imaging of Titan p786

C. Sotin, R. Jaumann, B. J. Buratti, R. H. Brown, R. N. Clark, L. A. Soderblom, K. H. Baines, G. Bellucci, J.-P. Bibring, F. Capaccioni, P. Cerroni, M. Combes, A. Coradini, D. P. Cruikshank, P. Drossart, V. Formisano, Y. Langevin, D. L. Matson, T. B. McCord, R. M. Nelson, P. D. Nicholson, B. Sicardy, S. LeMouelic, S. Rodriguez, K. Stephan and C. K. Scholz

doi: 10.1038/nature03596

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Prockter

Discovery of an aurora on Mars p790

Jean-Loup Bertaux, François Leblanc, Olivier Witasse, Eric Quemerais, Jean Lilensten, S. A. Stern, B. Sandel and Oleg Korablev

doi: 10.1038/nature03603

See also: Editor's summary

A thermally self-sustained micro solid-oxide fuel-cell stack with high power density p795

Zongping Shao, Sossina M. Haile, Jeongmin Ahn, Paul D. Ronney, Zhongliang Zhan and Scott A. Barnett

doi: 10.1038/nature03673

See also: Editor's summary

Lightning-induced intensification of the ionospheric sporadic E layer p799

C. J. Davis and C. G. Johnson

doi: 10.1038/nature03638

See also: Editor's summary

Geomagnetic dipole strength and reversal rate over the past two million years p802

Jean-Pierre Valet, Laure Meynadier and Yohan Guyodo

doi: 10.1038/nature03674

Effects of species and functional group loss on island ecosystem properties p806

David A. Wardle and Olle Zackrisson

doi: 10.1038/nature03611

See also: Editor's summary

Average remaining lifetimes can increase as human populations age p811

Warren C. Sanderson and Sergei Scherbov

doi: 10.1038/nature03593

See also: Editor's summary

Uncovering the overlapping community structure of complex networks in nature and society p814

Gergely Palla, Imre Derényi, Illés Farkas and Tamás Vicsek

doi: 10.1038/nature03607

See also: Editor's summary

Nitrogen transfer in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis p819

Manjula Govindarajulu, Philip E. Pfeffer, Hairu Jin, Jehad Abubaker, David D. Douds, James W. Allen, Heike Bücking, Peter J. Lammers and Yair Shachar-Hill

doi: 10.1038/nature03610

See also: Editor's summary

Plant sesquiterpenes induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi p824

Kohki Akiyama, Ken-ichi Matsuzaki and Hideo Hayashi

doi: 10.1038/nature03608

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Parniske

A microRNA polycistron as a potential human oncogene p828

Lin He, J. Michael Thomson, Michael T. Hemann, Eva Hernando-Monge, David Mu, Summer Goodson, Scott Powers, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Scott W. Lowe, Gregory J. Hannon and Scott M. Hammond

doi: 10.1038/nature03552

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Meltzer

MicroRNA expression profiles classify human cancers p834

Jun Lu, Gad Getz, Eric A. Miska, Ezequiel Alvarez-Saavedra, Justin Lamb, David Peck, Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Benjamin L. Ebert, Raymond H. Mak, Adolfo A. Ferrando, James R. Downing, Tyler Jacks, H. Robert Horvitz and Todd R. Golub

doi: 10.1038/nature03702

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Meltzer

c-Myc-regulated microRNAs modulate E2F1 expression p839

Kathryn A. O'Donnell, Erik A. Wentzel, Karen I. Zeller, Chi V. Dang and Joshua T. Mendell

doi: 10.1038/nature03677

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Meltzer

Correlation of structural elements and infectivity of the HET-s prion p844

Christiane Ritter, Marie-Lise Maddelein, Ansgar B. Siemer, Thorsten Lührs, Matthias Ernst, Beat H. Meier, Sven J. Saupe and Roland Riek

doi: 10.1038/nature03793

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Dobson




French lessons p849

New postdoc award promotes collaboration between North American and French biotech

Paul Smaglik

doi: 10.1038/nj7043-849a

Postdocs and Students

Getting schooled p850

To juggle teaching and research, classroom veterans advise beginners to draw on mentors and all the resources they can find. Kendall Powell learns about the balancing act.

Kendall Powell

doi: 10.1038/nj7043-850a



Looking for Mr Goodbug p854

Will work for food.

Elisabeth Malartre

doi: 10.1038/435854a

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