Table of contents



In pursuit of systems p1

The study of functioning groups of molecules is an important frontier of biology at reductionist and holistic levels. Central to the long-term goals of scientific research, it brings its own challenges of infrastructure and evaluation.

doi: 10.1038/435001a

Fear and rambling at NASA p1

The US space agency needs an injection of rationality.

doi: 10.1038/435001b



Pesticide results help China edge transgenic rice towards market p3

Genetically modified varieties promise health benefits for farmers.

David Cyranoski

doi: 10.1038/435003a

Academics stress licence threat to US science p4

Alarms ring over rules for foreign nationals and 'sensitive' equipment.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi: 10.1038/435004a

Hubble rescue mission gears up despite shuttle setback p4

Tony Reichhardt

doi: 10.1038/435004b

US bungled investigation into weapons research in Iraq p5

Innocent scientists detained while real culprits went free.

Jim Giles and Geoff Brumfiel

doi: 10.1038/435005a

Rethink on review leaves researchers out in the cold p5

US National Science Foundation asks universities to pre-screen grants.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi: 10.1038/435005b

Free genome databases finally defeat Celera p6

Pioneering firm completes switch from genomics to drugs.

Emma Marris

doi: 10.1038/435006a

Arctic trends scrutinized as chilly winter destroys ozone p6

Is climate change to blame for looming northern hole?

Quirin Schiermeier

doi: 10.1038/435006b

Hikes in surface ozone could suffocate crops p7

Photosynthesis threatened by rising air pollution.

Jim Giles

doi: 10.1038/435007a

news in brief p8

doi: 10.1038/435008a


News Features

Labs on a chip:  Meet the stripped down rat p12

Are wafers of silicon that support cells cultured from vital organs the future of drug testing and toxicology? Roxanne Khamsi talks to the pioneers creating model animals — and humans — on a chip.

doi: 10.1038/435012a

See also: Editor's summary

Hotwire my heart p14

Growing numbers of people are being implanted with electronic devices that can automatically restart a failing heart. But have the risks and benefits been adequately assessed? Duncan Graham-Rowe investigates.

doi: 10.1038/435014a



Guidelines reduce the risk of brain-scan shock p17

Responsibility for research is separate from a centre's duty of care to MRI volunteers.

John D. Pickard and Jonathan H. Gillard

doi: 10.1038/435017a

DNA barcoding a useful tool for taxonomists p17

David E. Schindel and Scott E. Miller

doi: 10.1038/435017b

Debate to be had on best practice in mentoring p17

Alan Lord

doi: 10.1038/435017c


Spring Books

Gödel's universe p19

The legacy of one of the greatest thinkers of the twentieth century.

Martin Davis reviews Incompleteness: The Proof and Paradox of Kurt Gödel by Rebecca Goldstein and A World Without Time: The Forgotten Legacy of Gödel and Einstein by Palle Yourgrau

doi: 10.1038/435019a

See also: Editor's summary

The dark side of astronomy p20

Thanu Padmanabhan reviews Empire of the Stars: Friendship, Obsession and Betrayal in the Quest for Black Holes by Arthur I. Miller

doi: 10.1038/435020a

Destroying the zombic hunch p21

Susan Blackmore reviews Sweet Dreams: Philosophical Obstacles to a Science of Consciousness by Daniel C. Dennett

doi: 10.1038/435021a

Making progress? p23

Don Ihde reviews FAB: The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop — From Personal Computers to Personal Fabrication by Neil Gershenfeld

doi: 10.1038/435023a

Climbing the evolutionary tree p24

Peter Andrews reviews The Ape in the Tree: An Intellectual and Natural History of Proconsul by Alan Walker and Pat Shipman

doi: 10.1038/435024a

The evolution of scientific thinking p25

Rachel Wood reviews Reef Madness: Charles Darwin, Alexander Agassiz, and the Meaning of Coral by David Dobbs

doi: 10.1038/435025a

With the future in mind p27

John C. Marshall reviews The 21st-Century Brain: Explaining, Mending and Manipulating the Mind by Steven Rose

doi: 10.1038/435027a

Literature red in tooth and claw p28

Michel Raymond reviews Madame Bovary's Ovaries: A Darwinian Look at Literature by David P. Barash and Nanelle R. Barash

doi: 10.1038/435028a


News and Views

Evolutionary biology:  Ghost of speciation past p29

Lurking in the rivers of Botswana are the remnants of a diverse flock of cichlid fishes, whose origins can be traced to a lake that vanished more than 2,000 years ago.

Thomas D. Kocher

doi: 10.1038/435029a

See also: Editor's summary

Developmental biology:  Morphogens hitch a greasy ride p30

Morphogen proteins guide the development of many tissues in animals, but how are these insoluble proteins ferried around the body? A well-known group of lipid transporters might be the answer.

Richard S. Mann and Joaquim Culi

doi: 10.1038/435030a

100 and 50 years ago p31

doi: 10.1038/435031a

Planetary science:  Saturn's retrograde renegade p33

Data from the Cassini−Huygens mission provide convincing evidence that the saturnian moon Phoebe formed elsewhere in the Solar System, and was only later captured by Saturn's gravitational pull.

J. Brad Dalton

doi: 10.1038/435033a

See also: Editor's summary

Reproductive biology:  Fatty link to fertility p34

A short delay in the attachment of embryos to the wall of the womb during early pregnancy adversely affects later developmental processes. New evidence reinforces the need for lipids to regulate this event.

S. K. Dey

doi: 10.1038/435034a

See also: Editor's summary

Materials science:  A hard look at glass p35

The topology of amorphous glasses has generally been considered only at the level of atoms and their nearest neighbours. A larger-scale view gives a fresh perspective on the structure and formation of these glasses.

Paul Madden

doi: 10.1038/435035a

Cell biology:  Sterol sensor comes up for air p37

In one example of a feedback mechanism in mammals, cells switch cholesterol synthesis on or off depending on the availability of sterol. A rewired version of this pathway in yeast acts instead as an oxygen sensor.

Renee M. Garza and Randolph Y. Hampton

doi: 10.1038/435037a

research highlights p39

doi: 10.1038/435039a


Brief Communications

Botany:  Specialized bird perch aids cross-pollination p41

A plant scores by providing an access point for visiting sunbirds to feed on its nectar.

Bruce Anderson, William W. Cole and Spencer C. H. Barrett

doi: 10.1038/435041a

Biochemistry:  A cadmium enzyme from a marine diatom p42

Todd W. Lane, Mak A. Saito, Graham N. George, Ingrid J. Pickering, Roger C. Prince and François M. M. Morel

doi: 10.1038/435042a

Corrigendum p42

doi: 10.1038/435042b



The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum p43

L. Eichinger, J. A. Pachebat, G. Glöckner, M.-A. Rajandream, R. Sucgang, M. Berriman, J. Song, R. Olsen, K. Szafranski, Q. Xu, B. Tunggal, S. Kummerfeld, M. Madera, B. A. Konfortov, F. Rivero, A. T. Bankier, R. Lehmann, N. Hamlin, R. Davies, P. Gaudet, P. Fey, K. Pilcher, G. Chen, D. Saunders, E. Sodergren, P. Davis, A. Kerhornou, X. Nie, N. Hall, C. Anjard, L. Hemphill, N. Bason, P. Farbrother, B. Desany, E. Just, T. Morio, R. Rost, C. Churcher, J. Cooper, S. Haydock, N. van Driessche, A. Cronin, I. Goodhead, D. Muzny, T. Mourier, A. Pain, M. Lu, D. Harper, R. Lindsay, H. Hauser, K. James, M. Quiles, M. Madan Babu, T. Saito, C. Buchrieser, A. Wardroper, M. Felder, M. Thangavelu, D. Johnson, A. Knights, H. Loulseged, K. Mungall, K. Oliver, C. Price, M. A. Quail, H. Urushihara, J. Hernandez, E. Rabbinowitsch, D. Steffen, M. Sanders, J. Ma, Y. Kohara, S. Sharp, M. Simmonds, S. Spiegler, A. Tivey, S. Sugano, B. White, D. Walker, J. Woodward, T. Winckler, Y. Tanaka, G. Shaulsky, M. Schleicher, G. Weinstock, A. Rosenthal, E. C. Cox, R. L. Chisholm, R. Gibbs, W. F. Loomis, M. Platzer, R. R. Kay, J. Williams, P. H. Dear, A. A. Noegel, B. Barrell and A. Kuspa

doi: 10.1038/nature03481

See also: Editor's summary

Lipoprotein particles are required for Hedgehog and Wingless signalling p58

Daniela Panáková, Hein Sprong, Eric Marois, Christoph Thiele and Suzanne Eaton

doi: 10.1038/nature03504

See also: News and Views by Mann & Culi


Letters to Nature

Compositional maps of Saturn's moon Phoebe from imaging spectroscopy p66

Roger N. Clark, Robert H. Brown, Ralf Jaumann, Dale P. Cruikshank, Robert M. Nelson, Bonnie J. Buratti, Thomas B. McCord, J. Lunine, K. H. Baines, G. Bellucci, J.-P. Bibring, F. Capaccioni, P. Cerroni, A. Coradini, V. Formisano, Y. Langevin, D. L. Matson, V. Mennella, P. D. Nicholson, B. Sicardy, C. Sotin, Todd M. Hoefen, John M. Curchin, Gary Hansen, Karl Hibbits and K.-D. Matz

doi: 10.1038/nature03558

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Dalton

Saturn's moon Phoebe as a captured body from the outer Solar System p69

Torrence V. Johnson and Jonathan I. Lunine

doi: 10.1038/nature03384

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Dalton

Manipulating spin and charge in magnetic semiconductors using superconducting vortices p71

Mona Berciu, Tatiana G. Rappoport and Boldizsár Jankó

doi: 10.1038/nature03559

Topological versus chemical ordering in network glasses at intermediate and extended length scales p75

Philip S. Salmon, Richard A. Martin, Philip E. Mason and Gabriel J. Cuello

doi: 10.1038/nature03475

See also: News and Views by Madden

Measurement of femtometre-scale atomic displacements by X-ray absorption spectroscopy p78

Robert F. Pettifer, Olivier Mathon, Sakura Pascarelli, Michael D. Cooke and Michael R. J. Gibbs

doi: 10.1038/nature03516

See also: Editor's summary

Slip rate variations on normal faults during glacial−interglacial changes in surface loads p81

Ralf Hetzel and Andrea Hampel

doi: 10.1038/nature03562

A primitive therizinosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Utah p84

James I. Kirkland, Lindsay E. Zanno, Scott D. Sampson, James M. Clark and Donald D. DeBlieux

doi: 10.1038/nature03468

See also: Editor's summary

Discovery of the first Asian plethodontid salamander p87

M. S. Min, S. Y. Yang, R. M. Bonett, D. R. Vieites, R. A. Brandon and D. B. Wake

doi: 10.1038/nature03474

See also: Editor's summary

An extant cichlid fish radiation emerged in an extinct Pleistocene lake p90

Domino A. Joyce, David H. Lunt, Roger Bills, George F. Turner, Cyprian Katongo, Nina Duftner, Christian Sturmbauer and Ole Seehausen

doi: 10.1038/nature03489

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Kocher

Epistasis and balanced polymorphism influencing complex trait variation p95

Juergen Kroymann and Thomas Mitchell-Olds

doi: 10.1038/nature03480

Suppression of Notch signalling by the COUP-TFII transcription factor regulates vein identity p98

Li-Ru You, Fu-Jung Lin, Christopher T. Lee, Francesco J. DeMayo, Ming-Jer Tsai and Sophia Y. Tsai

doi: 10.1038/nature03511

See also: Editor's summary

LPA3-mediated lysophosphatidic acid signalling in embryo implantation and spacing p104

Xiaoqin Ye, Kotaro Hama, James J. A. Contos, Brigitte Anliker, Asuka Inoue, Michael K. Skinner, Hiroshi Suzuki, Tomokazu Amano, Grace Kennedy, Hiroyuki Arai, Junken Aoki and Jerold Chun

doi: 10.1038/nature03505

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Dey

Cellular APOBEC3G restricts HIV-1 infection in resting CD4+ T cells p108

Ya-Lin Chiu, Vanessa B. Soros, Jason F. Kreisberg, Kim Stopak, Wes Yonemoto and Warner C. Greene

doi: 10.1038/nature03493

See also: Editor's summary

The bipolar mitotic kinesin Eg5 moves on both microtubules that it crosslinks p114

Lukas C. Kapitein, Erwin J. G. Peterman, Benjamin H. Kwok, Jeffrey H. Kim, Tarun M. Kapoor and Christoph F. Schmidt

doi: 10.1038/nature03503

A synthetic gene−metabolic oscillator p118

Eileen Fung, Wilson W. Wong, Jason K. Suen, Thomas Bulter, Sun-gu Lee and James C. Liao

doi: 10.1038/nature03508




Management potential p123

Paul Smaglik

doi: 10.1038/nj7038-123a

Special Report

Making it in the biotech business p124

Being good at research isn't enough for success in the biotech business. Virgina Gewin finds out where to get the other skills you need.

Virginia Gewin

doi: 10.1038/nj7038-124a

Career View

Graduate Journal:  Finding the balance p126

Tobias Langenhan

doi: 10.1038/nj7038-126a

Nuts & Bolts p126

Deb Koen

doi: 10.1038/nj7038-126b

Movers p126

doi: 10.1038/nj7038-126c



Meat p128

A growth industry.

Paul McAuley

doi: 10.1038/435128a

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