Table of contents



The rise of café culture p327

A night out in a bar is all the more enjoyable if you can digest some science too. That's the lesson of a growing movement whose character may be local but whose reach is potentially global — and at a small cost.


Dragged into the fray p327

Willingly or not, Russia's science academy has become part of the political economy of climate.




Clinicians win fight to overturn patent for breast-cancer gene p329

Alison Abbott


Project structure blamed for Beagle 2 loss p330

Laura Nelson


Monsanto wins seven-year court battle for seed patent p330

David Spurgeon


Tissue survey raises spectre of 'second wave' of vCJD p331

Jim Giles


Biodefence project accused of violating weapons treaty p331

Erika Check


Microbiology gaining ground after lean years p332

Jonathan Knight


Japan announces follow-up to human genome project p332

David Cyranoski


Pop science pulls in public as café culture goes global p333

Jim Giles


Britain opens first repository to speed work on stem cells p333

Laura Nelson


News in brief p334



News Features

Striking back p338

Stroke has disabled millions of people, stealing their ability to walk or communicate. Can future victims be helped by treatments that stimulate the growth of new brain cells? Alison Abbott investigates.


NASA meets Hollywood:  Catch a falling star p340

When NASA needed someone to grab a spacecraft on its re-entry to Earth, it turned to Hollywood for help. Nicola Jones meets the stunt pilots preparing to snag the $260-million experiment before it hits the desert floor.




Call for action to protect free exchange of ideas p343

A US law that limits trade to embargoed countries is now affecting scientists' activities.

Kenneth R. Foster


Efforts to help Africa are tripped up by red tape p343

Peter N. Campbell



Books and Arts

Nature's biological weapon p345

The 1918 flu pandemic killed 50 million people — and it could happen again.

John Oxford reviews The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the 1918 Pandemic by John M. Barry


Taking stock of conservation p346

E. J. Milner-Gulland reviews Against Extinction: The Story of Conservation by William M. Adams


Film:  Making heavy weather p347

Myles Allen reviews The Day After Tomorrow Directed by Roland Emmerich


The second creation p348

Graham Farmelo reviews Human-built World: How to Think about Technology and Culture by Thomas P. Hughes


Exhibition:  Scientific expressionism p348

Alison Abbott




Turning points

A late change to the programme p349

How an engineer became hooked on atmospheric chemistry.

Paul J. Crutzen



News and Views

Automata make antisense p351

Information-carrying DNA strands can be used to perform simple computations, but have so far been little more than toys. Can molecular computers be more broadly useful — in medicine, for instance?

Anne Condon


100 and 50 years ago p352


Granular materials: The brazil nut effect — in reverse p352

In a box of mixed nuts, the brazils rise to the top. In granular mixtures in general, depending on their size and density, the 'brazil nuts' may sink instead. This reverse effect has now been explored further.

Troy Shinbrot


Genome sequencing:  Differences with the relatives p353

One of the chimpanzee's chromosomes has been sequenced to near-completion. What can this accomplishment tell us about how we have come to look and act so differently from our chimp relatives?

Jean Weissenbach


Earth science:  Just add more water p356

Data from a different technique for probing events within the Earth, interpreted in terms of a new hypothesis about the effects of water at depth, raise tantalizing questions about recycling of a tectonic plate.

Rob Evans


Organic chemistry:  OOO! p356

Alison Wright


Ageing:  Mice and mitochondria p357

It can be hard to work out whether particular events are a cause or a correlate of ageing — do mutations in mitochondrial DNA, for instance, speed up the process of growing old? Some clever studies suggest so.

George M. Martin and Lawrence A. Loeb


Geochemistry:  Warm debate on early climate p359

Would Earth's early ocean have been a frozen wasteland had levels of atmospheric methane not been sky high? Maybe. Or maybe, according to a new view of an old idea, the main warming agent was carbon dioxide.

Timothy W. Lyons


News and views in brief p361



Brief Communications

Pigment chemistry:  The red sweat of the hippopotamus p363

The red and orange pigments in this secretion account for its protective properties.

Yoko Saikawa, Kimiko Hashimoto, Masaya Nakata, Masato Yoshihara, Kiyoshi Nagai, Motoyasu Ida and Teruyuki Komiya




Quality assessment of the human genome sequence p365

Jeremy Schmutz, Jeremy Wheeler, Jane Grimwood, Mark Dickson, Joan Yang, Chenier Caoile, Eva Bajorek, Stacey Black, Yee Man Chan, Mirian Denys, Julio Escobar, Dave Flowers, Dea Fotopulos, Carmen Garcia, Maria Gomez, Eidelyn Gonzales, Lauren Haydu, Frederick Lopez, Lucia Ramirez, James Retterer, Alex Rodriguez, Stephanie Rogers, Angelica Salazar, Ming Tsai and Richard M. Myers




DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9 p369

S. J. Humphray, K. Oliver, A. R. Hunt, R. W. Plumb, J. E. Loveland, K. L. Howe, T. D. Andrews, S. Searle, S. E. Hunt, C. E. Scott, M. C. Jones, R. Ainscough, J. P. Almeida, K. D. Ambrose, R. I. S. Ashwell, A. K. Babbage, S. Babbage, C. L. Bagguley, J. Bailey, R. Banerjee, D. J. Barker, K. F. Barlow, K. Bates, H. Beasley, O. Beasley, C. P. Bird, S. Bray-Allen, A. J. Brown, J. Y. Brown, D. Burford, W. Burrill, J. Burton, C. Carder, N. P. Carter, J. C. Chapman, Y. Chen, G. Clarke, S. Y. Clark, C. M. Clee, S. Clegg, R. E. Collier, N. Corby, M. Crosier, A. T. Cummings, J. Davies, P. Dhami, M. Dunn, I. Dutta, L. W. Dyer, M. E. Earthrowl, L. Faulkner, C. J. Fleming, A. Frankish, J. A. Frankland, L. French, D. G. Fricker, P. Garner, J. Garnett, J. Ghori, J. G. R. Gilbert, C. Glison, D. V. Grafham, S. Gribble, C. Griffiths, S. Griffiths-Jones, R. Grocock, J. Guy, R. E. Hall, S. Hammond, J. L. Harley, E. S. I. Harrison, E. A. Hart, P. D. Heath, C. D. Henderson, B. L. Hopkins, P. J. Howard, P. J. Howden, E. Huckle, C. Johnson, D. Johnson, A. A. Joy, M. Kay, S. Keenan, J. K. Kershaw, A. M. Kimberley, A. King, A. Knights, G. K. Laird, C. Langford, S. Lawlor, D. A. Leongamornlert, M. Leversha, C. Lloyd, D. M. Lloyd, J. Lovell, S. Martin, M. Mashreghi-Mohammadi, L. Matthews, S. McLaren, K. E. McLay, A. McMurray, S. Milne, T. Nickerson, J. Nisbett, G. Nordsiek, A. V. Pearce, A. I. Peck, K. M. Porter, R. Pandian, S. Pelan, B. Phillimore, S. Povey, Y. Ramsey, V. Rand, M. Scharfe, H. K. Sehra, R. Shownkeen, S. K. Sims, C. D. Skuce, M. Smith, C. A. Steward, D. Swarbreck, N. Sycamore, J. Tester, A. Thorpe, A. Tracey, A. Tromans, D. W. Thomas, M. Wall, J. M. Wallis, A. P. West, S. L. Whitehead, D. L. Willey, S. A. Williams, L. Wilming, P. W. Wray, L. Young, J. L. Ashurst, A. Coulson, H. Blöcker, R. Durbin, J. E. Sulston, T. Hubbard, M. J. Jackson, D. R. Bentley, S. Beck, J. Rogers and I. Dunham


The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10 p375

P. Deloukas, M. E. Earthrowl, D. V. Grafham, M. Rubenfield, L. French, C. A. Steward, S. K. Sims, M. C. Jones, S. Searle, C. Scott, K. Howe, S. E. Hunt, T. D. Andrews, J. G. R. Gilbert, D. Swarbreck, J. L. Ashurst, A. Taylor, J. Battles, C. P. Bird, R. Ainscough, J. P. Almeida, R. I. S. Ashwell, K. D. Ambrose, A. K. Babbage, C. L. Bagguley, J. Bailey, R. Banerjee, K. Bates, H. Beasley, S. Bray-Allen, A. J. Brown, J. Y. Brown, D. C. Burford, W. Burrill, J. Burton, P. Cahill, D. Camire, N. P. Carter, J. C. Chapman, S. Y. Clark, G. Clarke, C. M. Clee, S. Clegg, N. Corby, A. Coulson, P. Dhami, I. Dutta, M. Dunn, L. Faulkner, A. Frankish, J. A. Frankland, P. Garner, J. Garnett, S. Gribble, C. Griffiths, R. Grocock, E. Gustafson, S. Hammond, J. L. Harley, E. Hart, P. D. Heath, T. P. Ho, B. Hopkins, J. Horne, P. J. Howden, E. Huckle, C. Hynds, C. Johnson, D. Johnson, A. Kana, M. Kay, A. M. Kimberley, J. K. Kershaw, M. Kokkinaki, G. K. Laird, S. Lawlor, H. M. Lee, D. A. Leongamornlert, G. Laird, C. Lloyd, D. M. Lloyd, J. Loveland, J. Lovell, S. McLaren, K. E. McLay, A. McMurray, M. Mashreghi-Mohammadi, L. Matthews, S. Milne, T. Nickerson, M. Nguyen, E. Overton-Larty, S. A. Palmer, A. V. Pearce, A. I. Peck, S. Pelan, B. Phillimore, K. Porter, C. M. Rice, A. Rogosin, M. T. Ross, T. Sarafidou, H. K. Sehra, R. Shownkeen, C. D. Skuce, M. Smith, L. Standring, N. Sycamore, J. Tester, A. Thorpe, W. Torcasso, A. Tracey, A. Tromans, J. Tsolas, M. Wall, J. Walsh, H. Wang, K. Weinstock, A. P. West, D. L. Willey, S. L. Whitehead, L. Wilming, P. W. Wray, L. Young, Y. Chen, R. C. Lovering, N. K. Moschonas, R. Siebert, K. Fechtel, D. Bentley, R. Durbin, T. Hubbard, L. Doucette-Stamm, S. Beck, D. R. Smith and J. Rogers


DNA sequence and comparative analysis of chimpanzee chromosome 22 p382

The International Chimpanzee Chromosome 22 Consortium


See also: News and Views by Weissenbach


Letters to Nature

Electron-hole symmetry in a semiconducting carbon nanotube quantum dot p389

Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, Sami Sapmaz, Cees Dekker, Leo P. Kouwenhoven and Herre S. J. van der Zant


Electric polarization reversal and memory in a multiferroic material induced by magnetic fields p392

N. Hur, S. Park, P. A. Sharma, J. S. Ahn, S. Guha and S-W. Cheong


Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before ~ 1.8 billion years ago p395

Hiroshi Ohmoto, Yumiko Watanabe and Kazumasa Kumazawa


Low electrical resistivity associated with plunging of the Nazca flat slab beneath Argentina p399

John R. Booker, Alicia Favetto and M. Cristina Pomposiello


See also: News and Views by Evans

Aldehyde suppression of copepod recruitment in blooms of a ubiquitous planktonic diatom p403

Adrianna Ianora, Antonio Miralto, Serge A. Poulet, Ylenia Carotenuto, Isabella Buttino, Giovanna Romano, Raffaella Casotti, Georg Pohnert, Thomas Wichard, Luca Colucci-D'Amato, Giuseppe Terrazzano and Victor Smetacek


Predator diversity dampens trophic cascades p407

Deborah L. Finke and Robert F. Denno


Object-based attention determines dominance in binocular rivalry p410

Jude F. Mitchell, Gene R. Stoner and John H. Reynolds


VEGF delivery with retrogradely transported lentivector prolongs survival in a mouse ALS model p413

Mimoun Azzouz, G. Scott Ralph, Erik Storkebaum, Lucy E. Walmsley, Kyriacos A. Mitrophanous, Susan M. Kingsman, Peter Carmeliet and Nicholas D. Mazarakis


Premature ageing in mice expressing defective mitochondrial DNA polymerase p417

Aleksandra Trifunovic, Anna Wredenberg, Maria Falkenberg, Johannes N. Spelbrink, Anja T. Rovio, Carl E. Bruder, Mohammad Bohlooly-Y, Sebastian Gidlöf, Anders Oldfors, Rolf Wibom, Jan Törnell, Howard T. Jacobs and Nils-Göran Larsson


See also: News and Views by Martin & Loeb

An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression p423

Yaakov Benenson, Binyamin Gil, Uri Ben-Dor, Rivka Adar and Ehud Shapiro


See also: News and Views by Condon

Assembly and function of a bacterial genotoxin p429

Dragana Nes caronic acute, Yun Hsu and C. Erec Stebbins


Human meiotic recombinase Dmc1 promotes ATP-dependent homologous DNA strand exchange p433

Michael G. Sehorn, Stefan Sigurdsson, Wendy Bussen, Vinzenz M. Unger and Patrick Sung





Human genomics and medicine p439

Chris Gunter



Genomes for medicine p440

David R. Bentley


review article

Mapping complex disease loci in whole-genome association studies p446

Christopher S. Carlson, Michael A. Eberle, Leonid Kruglyak and Deborah A. Nickerson


Predicting disease using genomics p453

John Bell


Epigenetics in human disease and prospects for epigenetic therapy p457

Gerda Egger, Gangning Liang, Ana Aparicio and Peter A. Jones


Moving towards individualized medicine with pharmacogenomics p464

William E. Evans and Mary V. Relling


Oncogenomics and the development of new cancer therapies p469

Robert L. Strausberg, Andrew J.G. Simpson, Lloyd J. Old and Gregory J. Riggins



The case for a US prospective cohort study of genes and environment p475

Francis S. Collins


Organizational challenges in clinical genomic research p478

Jill S. Altshuler and David Altshuler





Back to life p483

Paul Smaglik


Special Report

Taking a risk in start-ups p484

If you are planning to start your career by joining a biotech start-up, you will need to do some homework. Virginia Gewin assesses the risks involved.

Virginia Gewin


Career View

Graduate Journal:  Wrapping things up p486

Tshaka Cunningham


Recruiters & industry p486

Joe Rodriguez


Movers p486


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