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Editorial

NIH at the crossroads p545

The director of the US National Institutes of Health has laid out a plan that would align the world's largest biomedical research agency more closely to the future shape of the life sciences. It deserves political support.

doi:10.1038/425545a


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News

Magnetic pioneers net Nobel for putting medicine in the picture p547

Helen Pearson

doi:10.1038/425547a


Super-cool theories secure physics prize p548

Sarah Tomlin

doi:10.1038/425548a


Biologists join physics preprint club p548

Declan Butler

doi:10.1038/425548b


Scientists split over regulations on sonar use p549

Rex Dalton

doi:10.1038/425549a


European Commission dips toe into military research p549

Marika Willerroider

doi:10.1038/425549b


Spoof Nobels take researchers for a ride p550

Steve Nadis

doi:10.1038/425550a


Geologists seek to put an end to blind dates p550

Tom Clarke

doi:10.1038/425550b


Judge's sacking rocks Everglades clean-up p551

Betsy Mason

doi:10.1038/425551a


News in brief p552

doi:10.1038/425552a


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News

Correction p552

doi:10.1038/425552b


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News Features

Scientific publishing: Who will pay for open access? p554

A new biology journal, positioned to compete with the likes of Nature, Science and Cell, aims to reinvent the economics of high-quality scientific publishing. Declan Butler examines the bottom line.

doi:10.1038/425554a


Think outside the sandbox p556

One grain of sand is a solid. But a lot of grains together can behave like a solid or a liquid. By probing this dual personality, physicists hope to understand a host of real-world systems, says Mark Buchanan.

doi:10.1038/425556a


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Correspondence

'Open access' will not be open to everyone p559

Making authors pay for publication may not deliver the anticipated benefits.

John Ewing

doi:10.1038/425559a


Flaws undermine results of UK biotech debate p559

Scott Campbell and Ellen Townsend

doi:10.1038/425559b


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Books and Arts

Mad, bad and dangerous to eat p561

What the public wants remains a mystery, but food safety can't be ignored.

Eileen Rubery reviews When Food Kills: BSE, E. coli and Disaster Science by Hugh Pennington

doi:10.1038/425561a


Prime time for mathematics p562

W. T. Gowers reviews Prime Obsession: Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics by John Derbyshire and The Music of the Primes: Why an Unsolved Problem in Mathematics Matters by Marcus du Sautoy

doi:10.1038/425562a


Science in culture p563

Martin Kemp reviews

doi:10.1038/425563a


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Lifelines

Chris Miller: Channel hopping p564

Chris Miller is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator and professor of biochemistry at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts, and works on ion-channel mechanisms.

doi:10.1038/425564a


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News and Views

Neurobiology: Double trouble for neurons p565

Mutations in the presenilin protein are associated with Alzheimer's disease. It now seems that mutant presenilin could wreak havoc on neuronal functions by triggering the activation of certain genes.

Mark E. Fortini

doi:10.1038/425565a


Cosmology: The shape of the Universe p566

An analysis of astronomical data suggests not only that the Universe is finite, but also that it has a specific, rather rigid topology. If confirmed, this is a major discovery about the nature of the Universe.

George F. R. Ellis

doi:10.1038/425566a


Developmental biology: Clocking the birth of neurons p568

Different types of neurons are born in a conserved, sequential order during development. The molecular cogs in the clock-like mechanism driving this process are now being revealed.

William A. Harris

doi:10.1038/425568a


Plant biology: Locks, keys and symbioses p569

The association between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria requires molecular recognition to allow bacterial entry into root hairs. The discovery of a novel type of plant receptor clarifies how this happens.

Martin Parniske and J. Allan Downie

doi:10.1038/425569a


Nuclear physics: It's a knockout p570

In collisions between nuclei, a proton or neutron might be knocked out of one nucleus. Now, two-proton knockout has been demonstrated, opening a new route to the creation of neutron-rich systems for study.

David Warner

doi:10.1038/425570a


Neuroscience: Re-recording human memories p571

Two studies help reveal the dynamics of memory. New memories that weaken during the day can be strengthened by a period of sleep. And when memories are reactivated, they must be re-stored in order to persist.

Karim Nader

doi:10.1038/425571a


100 and 50 years ago p572

doi:10.1038/425572a


News and views in brief p573

doi:10.1038/425573a


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Brief Communications

Gas-bubble lesions in stranded cetaceans p575

Was sonar responsible for a spate of whale deaths after an Atlantic military exercise?

P. D. Jepson, M. Arbelo, R. Deaville, I. A. P. Patterson, P. Castro, J. R. Baker, E. Degollada, H. M. Ross, P. Herráez, A. M. Pocknell, F. Rodríguez, F. E. Howie, A. Espinosa, R. J. Reid, J. R. Jaber, V. Martin, A. A. Cunningham and A. Fernández

doi:10.1038/425575a


Immunology: Hepatitis A virus link to atopic disease p576

Jennifer J. McIntire, Sarah E. Umetsu, Claudia Macaubas, Elizabeth G. Hoyte, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Luigi L. Cavalli-Sforza, Gregory S. Barsh, Joachim F. Hallmayer, Peter A. Underhill, Neil J. Risch, Gordon J. Freeman, Rosemarie H. DeKruyff and Dale T. Umetsu

doi:10.1038/425576a


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Review

Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-beta family signalling p577

Rik Derynck and Ying E. Zhang

doi:10.1038/nature02006


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Article

Plant recognition of symbiotic bacteria requires two LysM receptor-like kinases p585

Simona Radutoiu, Lene Heegaard Madsen, Esben Bjørn Madsen, Hubert H. Felle, Yosuke Umehara, Mette Grønlund, Shusei Sato, Yasukazu Nakamura, Satoshi Tabata, Niels Sandal and Jens Stougaard

doi:10.1038/nature02039

See also: News and Views by Parniske & Downie


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Letters to Nature

Dodecahedral space topology as an explanation for weak wide-angle temperature correlations in the cosmic microwave background p593

Jean-Pierre Luminet, Jeffrey R. Weeks, Alain Riazuelo, Roland Lehoucq and Jean-Philippe Uzan

doi:10.1038/nature01944

See also: News and Views by Ellis


Fermi-liquid breakdown in the paramagnetic phase of a pure metal p595

N. Doiron-Leyraud, I. R. Walker, L. Taillefer, M. J. Steiner, S. R. Julian and G. G. Lonzarich

doi:10.1038/nature01968


Temperature-induced valence transition and associated lattice collapse in samarium fulleride p599

J. Arvanitidis, Konstantinos Papagelis, Serena Margadonna, Kosmas Prassides and Andrew N. Fitch

doi:10.1038/nature01994


Understanding and tuning the epitaxy of large aromatic adsorbates by molecular design p602

M. Eremtchenko, J. A. Schaefer and F. S. Tautz

doi:10.1038/nature01901


Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite p605

Robert P. Rapp, Nobumichi Shimizu and Marc D. Norman

doi:10.1038/nature02031


Large Cretaceous sphenodontian from Patagonia provides insight into lepidosaur evolution in Gondwana p609

Sebastián Apesteguía and Fernando E. Novas

doi:10.1038/nature01995


Ultraviolet vision in a bat p612

York Winter, Jorge López and Otto von Helversen

doi:10.1038/nature01971


Consolidation during sleep of perceptual learning of spoken language p614

Kimberly M. Fenn, Howard C. Nusbaum and Daniel Margoliash

doi:10.1038/nature01951

See also: News and Views by Nader


Dissociable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation p616

Matthew P. Walker, Tiffany Brakefield, J. Allan Hobson and Robert Stickgold

doi:10.1038/nature01930

See also: News and Views by Nader


Environmentally mediated synergy between perception and behaviour in mobile robots p620

Paul F. M. J. Verschure, Thomas Voegtlin and Rodney J. Douglas

doi:10.1038/nature02024


Regulation of neuroblast competence in Drosophila p624

Bret J. Pearson and Chris Q. Doe

doi:10.1038/nature01910

See also: News and Views by Harris


Basal body dysfunction is a likely cause of pleiotropic Bardet–Biedl syndrome p628

Stephen J. Ansley, Jose L. Badano, Oliver E. Blacque, Josephine Hill, Bethan E. Hoskins, Carmen C. Leitch, Jun Chul Kim, Alison J. Ross, Erica R. Eichers, Tanya M. Teslovich, Allan K. Mah, Robert C. Johnsen, John C. Cavender, Richard Alan Lewis, Michel R. Leroux, Philip L. Beales and Nicholas Katsanis

doi:10.1038/nature02030


The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway regulates cardiac valve formation p633

Adam F. L. Hurlstone, Anna-Pavlina G. Haramis, Erno Wienholds, Harry Begthel, Jeroen Korving, Fredericus van Eeden, Edwin Cuppen, Danica Zivkovic, Ronald H. A. Plasterk and Hans Clevers

doi:10.1038/nature02028


A receptor kinase gene of the LysM type is involved in legumeperception of rhizobial signals p637

Esben Bjørn Madsen, Lene Heegaard Madsen, Simona Radutoiu, Magdalena Olbryt, Magdalena Rakwalska, Krzysztof Szczyglowski, Shusei Sato, Takakazu Kaneko, Satoshi Tabata, Niels Sandal and Jens Stougaard

doi:10.1038/nature02045

See also: News and Views by Parniske & Downie


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New on the Market

Take a closer look p641

Light, stereo, scanning, transmission and other angles on microscopy.

doi:10.1038/425641a


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Naturejobs

Prospects

New perspectives p643

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj6958-643a


Career View

Young Scientist: Italian biotechnologists organize p644

Francesco Lescai and Marco Quarta

doi:10.1038/nj6958-644a


Nuts & Bolts p644

Deb Koen

doi:10.1038/nj6958-644b


Movers p644

doi:10.1038/nj6958-644c


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