Table of contents




Career prospects in Europe p3

Paul Smaglik


Special Report

Malaria research tools up for the future p4

Will the malaria genome open the door to new drugs, vaccines and job opportunities? Di Gershon investigates

Diane Gershon




Reflections on scientific fraud p417

An exhaustive investigation has revealed significant contamination of the physics literature by a researcher. Such incidents are difficult to prevent, but all involved can try harder.


Time to eradicate malaria p417

The fight against the disease needs not only money but also coherence.




Misconduct finding at Bell Labs shakes physics community p419

Geoff Brumfiel


Keeping up appearances p419

Geoff Brumfiel


Rising star crashes back to Earth p420

Alison Abbott


Saddam gives viewers double vision p421

Quirin Schiermeier


Former ImClone chief faces allegations of past misdeeds p421

Jonathan Knight


Weak leadership threatens anti-malaria drive p422

Declan Butler


Criminal courts 'should take genetics into account' p422

David Adam


Residents force review of biodefence lab p423

Rex Dalton


Traditional owners 'should be paid' p423

Quirin Schiermeier


news in brief p424




Editorial statement p425



news feature

What difference does a genome make? p426

The malaria parasite's genome should provide a wealth of new scientific opportunities. But this may heighten tensions over how best to spend the scant resources allocated to malaria research and control. Declan Butler reports.

Declan Butler


Mosquitoes minus malaria p429

If wild populations of the mosquito that transmits malaria were replaced with insects rendered harmless by genetic engineering, the disease could finally be defeated. But that remains a big 'if', as Tom Clarke finds out.

Tom Clarke




Integrated programme is key to malaria control p431

Genome publication must not divert attention from basic science and public-health goals.

Jürg Utzinger, Marcel Tanner, Daniel M. Kammen, Gerry F. Killeen and Burton H. Singer


How serendipity led to an early treatment p431

Pedro Cintas



Book Reviews

Better safe than sorry p433

Is the precautionary principle a useful guide to action?

Roger Pielke, Jr reviews The Precautionary Principle in the 20th Century: Late Lessons from Early Warnings


Mind over matter? p434

Gautam R. Desiraju reviews The Ingredients: A Guided Tour of the Elements by Philip Ball


Shaking the tree of life p435

Sean Nee reviews The Nature of Diversity: An Evolutionary Voyage of Discovery by Daniel R. Brooks and Deborah A. McLennan


A splash of colour p435




Stem-cell fusion: A twist of fate p437

Helen M. Blau



News and Views

Particle physics: Cold antihydrogen p439

The production of antihydrogen, the antimatter equivalent of the hydrogen atom, at low temperatures is an impressive feat. It also raises the possibility of searching for fundamental differences between matter and antimatter.

Tom W. Hijmans


Evolutionary biology: Death in the slow lane p440

Were the Late Pleistocene extinctions of large mammals the result of climate change or big-game hunting by humans? Reconstructing the biology of extinct species provides clues to the answer.

Marcel Cardillo and Adrian Lister


100 and 50 years ago p441


Immunology: Survival of the fitters p443

Our immune system's ability to fight viruses inside our cells relies on viral protein fragments being displayed on the cell surface. The enzyme needed for the last step in this presentation process has now been discovered.

Hans-Georg Rammensee


Earth science: Lava without the fizz p445

The carbon dioxide content of lavas influences both the behaviour of Earth's mantle and its climate. In one particular case, the difficulties of directly measuring that content have been overcome.

Peter Michael


Art: Imagine space p446

Alison Wright



Brief Communications

Fish populations: When the American sea sturgeon swam east p447

A colder Baltic Sea greeted this fish from across the Atantic Ocean in the Middle Ages.

Arne Ludwig, Lutz Debus, Dietmar Lieckfeldt, Isaac Wirgin, Norbert Benecke, Ingo Jenneckens, Patrick Williot, John R. Waldman and Christian Pitra


Food chemistry: Acrylamide is formed in the Maillard reaction p448

Donald S. Mottram, Bronislaw L. Wedzicha and Andrew T. Dodson


Food chemistry: Acrylamide from Maillard reaction products p449

Richard H. Stadler, Imre Blank, Natalia Varga, Fabien Robert, Jörg Hau, Philippe A. Guy, Marie-Claude Robert and Sonja Riediker


Quantum cryptography: A step towards global key distribution p450

C. Kurtsiefer, P. Zarda, M. Halder, H. Weinfurter, P. M. Gorman, P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity


erratum p450




Vapour undersaturation in primitive mid-ocean-ridge basalt and the volatile content of Earth's upper mantle p451

Alberto E. Saal, Erik H. Hauri, Charles H. Langmuir and Michael R. Perfit


See also: News and Views by Michael


Letters to Nature

Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms p456

M. Amoretti, C. Amsler, G. Bonomi, A. Bouchta, P. Bowe, C. Carraro, C. L. Cesar, M. Charlton, M. J. T. Collier, M. Doser, V. Filippini, K. S. Fine, A. Fontana, M. C. Fujiwara, R. Funakoshi, P. Genova, J. S. Hangst, R. S. Hayano, M. H. Holzscheiter, L. V. Jørgensen, V. Lagomarsino, R. Landua, D. Lindelöf, E. Lodi Rizzini, M. Macrì, N. Madsen, G. Manuzio, M. Marchesotti, P. Montagna, H. Pruys, C. Regenfus, P. Riedler, J. Rochet, A. Rotondi, G. Rouleau, G. Testera, A. Variola, T. L. Watson and D. P. van der Werf


See also: News and Views by Hijmans

Quantum phase transition in a common metal p459

A. Yeh, Yeong-Ah Soh, J. Brooke, G. Aeppli, T. F. Rosenbaum and S. M. Hayden


Light-induced conversion of an insulating refractory oxide into a persistent electronic conductor p462

Katsuro Hayashi, Satoru Matsuishi, Toshio Kamiya, Masahiro Hirano and Hideo Hosono


Switch of flow direction in an Antarctic ice stream p465

H. Conway, G. Catania, C. F. Raymond, A. M. Gades, T. A. Scambos and H. Engelhardt


Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird p467

Wolfgang Wiltschko, Joachim Traudt, Onur Güntürkün, Helmut Prior and Roswitha Wiltschko


Moving visual stimuli rapidly induce direction sensitivity of developing tectal neurons p470

Florian Engert, Huizhong W. Tao, Li I. Zhang and Mu-ming Poo


Dendrite growth increased by visual activity requires NMDA receptor and Rho GTPases p475

Wun Chey Sin, Kurt Haas, Edward S. Ruthazer and Hollis T. Cline


ERAAP customizes peptides for MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum p480

Thomas Serwold, Federico Gonzalez, Jennifer Kim, Richard Jacob and Nilabh Shastri


See also: News and Views by Rammensee

Molecular basis of transmembrane signalling by sensory rhodopsin II–transducer complex p484

Valentin I. Gordeliy, Jörg Labahn, Rouslan Moukhametzianov, Rouslan Efremov, Joachim Granzin, Ramona Schlesinger, Georg Büldt, Tudor Savopol, Axel J. Scheidig, Johann P. Klare and Martin Engelhard


correction: Chromosome-wide SNPs reveal an ancient origin for Plasmodium falciparum p487

Jianbing Mu, Junhui Duan, Kateryna D. Makova, Deirdre A. Joy, Chuong Q. Huynh, Oralee H. Branch, Wen-Hsiung Li and Xin-zhuan Su



plasmodium genomics


Good 'omics' for the poor? p489

Tanguy Chouard, Ursula Weiss and Ritu Dhand



The Plasmodium genome database p490

Designing and mining a eukaryotic genomics resource.

Jessica C. Kissinger, Brian P. Brunk, Jonathan Crabtree, Martin J. Fraunholz, Bindu Gajria, Arthur J. Milgram, David S. Pearson, Jonathan Schug, Amit Bahl, Sharon J. Diskin, Hagai Ginsburg, Gregory R. Grant, Dinesh Gupta, Philip Labo, Li Li, Matthew D. Mailman, Shannon K. McWeeney, Patricia Whetzel, Christian J. Stoeckert, Jr and David S. Roos


news and views

The parasite genome: The grand assault p493

The complete genome sequence of the parasite responsible for most of the world's human malaria has been determined. The nature of the genome meant that this was a difficult project, requiring considerable ingenuity.

Russell F. Doolittle


The parasite genome: Biological revelations p495

The genome of the malaria parasite was sequenced with the aim of learning more about how the parasite works, and with the hope that this would reveal potential drug targets. Has that hope been realized?

Dyann F. Wirth


The mosquito genome: The post-genomic era opens p496

The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the main agent in the transmission of human malaria. Its genome sequence will in time help to devise control strategies, but will be a more immediate boon for insect biologists.

Ennio De Gregorio and Bruno Lemaitre



Genome sequence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum p498

Malcolm J. Gardner, Neil Hall, Eula Fung, Owen White, Matthew Berriman, Richard W. Hyman, Jane M. Carlton, Arnab Pain, Karen E. Nelson, Sharen Bowman, Ian T. Paulsen, Keith James, Jonathan A. Eisen, Kim Rutherford, Steven L. Salzberg, Alister Craig, Sue Kyes, Man-Suen Chan, Vishvanath Nene, Shamira J. Shallom, Bernard Suh, Jeremy Peterson, Sam Angiuoli, Mihaela Pertea, Jonathan Allen, Jeremy Selengut, Daniel Haft, Michael W. Mather, Akhil B. Vaidya, David M. A. Martin, Alan H. Fairlamb, Martin J. Fraunholz, David S. Roos, Stuart A. Ralph, Geoffrey I. McFadden, Leda M. Cummings, G. Mani Subramanian, Chris Mungall, J. Craig Venter, Daniel J. Carucci, Stephen L. Hoffman, Chris Newbold, Ronald W. Davis, Claire M. Fraser and Bart Barrell


Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the model rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii yoelii p512

Jane M. Carlton, Samuel V. Angiuoli, Bernard B. Suh, Taco W. Kooij, Mihaela Pertea, Joana C. Silva, Maria D. Ermolaeva, Jonathan E. Allen, Jeremy D. Selengut, Hean L. Koo, Jeremy D. Peterson, Mihai Pop, Daniel S. Kosack, Martin F. Shumway, Shelby L. Bidwell, Shamira J. Shallom, Susan E. van Aken, Steven B. Riedmuller, Tamara V. Feldblyum, Jennifer K. Cho, John Quackenbush, Martha Sedegah, Azadeh Shoaibi, Leda M. Cummings, Laurence Florens, John R. Yates, J. Dale Raine, Robert E. Sinden, Michael A. Harris, Deirdre A. Cunningham, Peter R. Preiser, Lawrence W. Bergman, Akhil B. Vaidya, Leo H. van Lin, Chris J. Janse, Andrew P. Waters, Hamilton O. Smith, Owen R. White, Steven L. Salzberg, J. Craig Venter, Claire M. Fraser, Stephen L. Hoffman, Malcolm J. Gardner and Daniel J. Carucci


A proteomic view of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle p520

Laurence Florens, Michael P. Washburn, J. Dale Raine, Robert M. Anthony, Munira Grainger, J. David Haynes, J. Kathleen Moch, Nemone Muster, John B. Sacci, David L. Tabb, Adam A. Witney, Dirk Wolters, Yimin Wu, Malcolm J. Gardner, Anthony A. Holder, Robert E. Sinden, John R. Yates and Daniel J. Carucci


letters to nature

Sequence of Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes 1, 3–9 and 13 p527

N. Hall, A. Pain, M. Berriman, C. Churcher, B. Harris, D. Harris, K. Mungall, S. Bowman, R. Atkin, S. Baker, A. Barron, K. Brooks, C. O. Buckee, C. Burrows, I. Cherevach, C. Chillingworth, T. Chillingworth, Z. Christodoulou, L. Clark, R. Clark, C. Corton, A. Cronin, R. Davies, P. Davis, P. Dear, F. Dearden, J. Doggett, T. Feltwell, A. Goble, I. Goodhead, R. Gwilliam, N. Hamlin, Z. Hance, D. Harper, H. Hauser, T. Hornsby, S. Holroyd, P. Horrocks, S. Humphray, K. Jagels, K. D. James, D. Johnson, A. Kerhornou, A. Knights, B. Konfortov, S. Kyes, N. Larke, D. Lawson, N. Lennard, A. Line, M. Maddison, J. McLean, P. Mooney, S. Moule, L. Murphy, K. Oliver, D. Ormond, C. Price, M. A. Quail, E. Rabbinowitsch, M.-A. Rajandream, S. Rutter, K. M. Rutherford, M. Sanders, M. Simmonds, K. Seeger, S. Sharp, R. Smith, R. Squares, S. Squares, K. Stevens, K. Taylor, A. Tivey, L. Unwin, S. Whitehead, J. Woodward, J. E. Sulston, A. Craig, C. Newbold and B. G. Barrell


Sequence of Plasmodium falciparum chromosomes 2, 10, 11 and 14 p531

Malcolm J. Gardner, Shamira J. Shallom, Jane M. Carlton, Steven L. Salzberg, Vishvanath Nene, Azadeh Shoaibi, Anne Ciecko, Jeffery Lynn, Michael Rizzo, Bruce Weaver, Behnam Jarrahi, Michael Brenner, Babak Parvizi, Luke Tallon, Azita Moazzez, David Granger, Claire Fujii, Cheryl Hansen, James Pederson, Tamara Feldblyum, Jeremy Peterson, Bernard Suh, Sam Angiuoli, Mihaela Pertea, Jonathan Allen, Jeremy Selengut, Owen White, Leda M. Cummings, Hamilton O. Smith, Mark D. Adams, J. Craig Venter, Daniel J. Carucci, Stephen L. Hoffman and Claire M. Fraser


Sequence of Plasmodium falciparum chromosome 12 p534

Richard W. Hyman, Eula Fung, Aaron Conway, Omar Kurdi, Jennifer Mao, Molly Miranda, Brian Nakao, Don Rowley, Tomoaki Tamaki, Fawn Wang and Ronald W. Davis


Analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum proteome by high-accuracy mass spectrometry p537

Edwin Lasonder, Yasushi Ishihama, Jens S. Andersen, Adriaan M. W. Vermunt, Arnab Pain, Robert W. Sauerwein, Wijnand M. C. Eling, Neil Hall, Andrew P. Waters, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg and Matthias Mann


Extra navigation

  • Japanese table of contents