FIGURE 2. Environmental impact ratings of four apple production systems: Organic, conventional, integrated and non-PMD conventional.

From the following article:

Sustainability of three apple production systems

John P. Reganold, Jerry D. Glover, Preston K. Andrews and Herbert R. Hinman

Nature 410, 926-930(19 April 2001)

doi:10.1038/35073574

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Higher ratings indicate greater potential for negative environmental impact. For a listing of chemicals used and their impact ratings for the four production systems, see Table A6 in Supplementary Information.

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