Table of contents


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Opinion

Don't underestimate the enemy p269

When an infectious disease appears to be in decline, the agent that causes it tends to disappear from the biomedical research agenda. As recent events have revealed, that can be a mistake.

doi:10.1038/35053282


The stuff of ideas p269

Introducing new ways in which researchers and others can stimulate Nature's readers.

doi:10.1038/35053284


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News

Biotech sector still looking lively p271

Sally Lehrman

doi:10.1038/35053286


Harvard to spend 'hundreds of millions' on further expansion p271

Rex Dalton

doi:10.1038/35053288


Japanese legume project may help to fix nitrogen problem p272

David Cyranoski

doi:10.1038/35053291


South Africa reveals funding allocations for research p272

Michael Cherry

doi:10.1038/35053294


Group urges survey of antibiotics in animals p273

Meredith Wadman

doi:10.1038/35053297


French museum report sparks researchers' revolt p273

Declan Butler

doi:10.1038/35053300


Genes may solve hormone-disrupter debate p274

Robert Triendl

doi:10.1038/35053303


Spanish leader lends ear to science p274

Xavier Bosch

doi:10.1038/35053306


CNN founder launches arms control initiative p275

Irwin Goodwin

doi:10.1038/35053309


BSE fallout sends shock waves through Germany p275

Alison Abbott

doi:10.1038/35053312


news in brief p276

doi:10.1038/35053315


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news feature

Polio's last stand p278

Does an outbreak of poliomyelitis in the Caribbean caused by a mutated vaccine mean that plans to complete the disease's eradication must be reworked? Tom Clarke considers the evidence.

Tom Clarke

doi:10.1038/35053235


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Correspondence

. . . and senior staff say there's no problem p281

S. K. Sopory

doi:10.1038/35053318


Funding assured for India's international biotechnology centre . . . p281

Adolfo R. Taylhardat and Arturo Falaschi

doi:10.1038/35053320


Doing our best for returners to Spain p281

Carme Picallo

doi:10.1038/35053322


Difficulty in reconciling global-warming data p281

S. Fred Singer

doi:10.1038/35053324


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Book Reviews

How Maxwell made his mark p283

His findings, taken for granted now, were fiercely contested during his life.

Scott Walter reviews Electrodynamics from Ampère to Einstein By Olivier Darrigol

doi:10.1038/35053149


Not so crazy after all p284

Dylan Evans reviews Strong Imagination: Madness, Creativity and Human Nature by Daniel Nettle

doi:10.1038/35053152


A book that rocked the Victorian world p285

David Oldroyd reviews Victorian Sensation: The Extraordinary Publication, Reception and Secret Authorship of Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation by James A. Secord

doi:10.1038/35053155


The treasures beneath our feet p285

doi:10.1038/35053157


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words

The birth of scientific reading p287

The social structures of science were invented to cope with an explosion of printed information.

Adrian Johns

doi:10.1038/35053242


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concepts

The key to the past? p289

Richard B. Alley

doi:10.1038/35053245


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News and Views

Talk is cheap in the city p291

Telecommunications companies have paid a heavy price for their share of the radio spectrum. So they have been quick to exploit 'multiple antennas' that can increase transmission rates in urban areas.

Henry L. Bertoni

doi:10.1038/35053248


Diabetes: The missing link with obesity? p292

The molecular mechanisms underlying the link between obesity and diabetes have been elusive. A new protein, christened 'resistin', can now be added to the panoply of factors that may be involved.

Jeffrey S. Flier

doi:10.1038/35053251


Geochemistry: New prospects for old gas p293

Isotope studies furnish evidence of the source of CO2 in certain natural-gas reserves, and of the long-term retention of such gas in unexpected environments such as ancient continental crust.

Bernard Marty

doi:10.1038/35053254


RNA silencing: Diced defence p295

RNA silencing allows cells to block invading viruses or mobile DNAs. An RNA-cleaving enzyme involved in the first step of silencing has now been identified.

David Baulcombe

doi:10.1038/35053256


Neutron stars: Pulsars crash the magnetar party p296

The discovery of a youthful neutron star with an extreme magnetic field blurs the once clear divide between magnetars and pulsars.

Jim Cordes

doi:10.1038/35053259


100 AND 50 YEARS AGO p297

doi:10.1038/35053262


Evolution: Speciation in the round p299

'Ring species' occur when one species grades into two at the overlap of a circular population distribution. Good examples are rare, but one case has now passed some rigorous tests.

David B. Wake

doi:10.1038/35053264


Water structure: Order and oddities p300

Water is a common but unusual liquid. Precise measures of the arrangement of molecules in water may help us to better understand some of its peculiar properties.

Srikanth Sastry

doi:10.1038/35053267


Neuroscience: Cats, dogs and categories p300

Hemai Parthasarathy

doi:10.1038/35053271


Obituary: Louis Néel (1904–2000) p302

Michael Coey

doi:10.1038/35053274


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Brief Communications

A viable herd of genetically uniform cattle p303

Deleterious alleles seem to have been purged in a feral strain of inbred cows.

P. M. Visscher, D. Smith, S. J. G. Hall and J. L. Williams

doi:10.1038/35053160


Surface science: Topology of two-dimensional C60 domains p304

J. G. Hou, Yang Jinlong, Wang Haiqian, Li Qunxiang, Zeng Changgan, Yuan Lanfeng, Wang Bing, D. M. Chen and Zhu Qingshi

doi:10.1038/35053163


Neurology: Self-recognition and the right hemisphere p305

Julian Paul Keenan, Aaron Nelson, Margaret O'Connor and Alvaro Pascual-Leone

doi:10.1038/35053167


Geophysics: Life, geology and snowball Earth p306

Daniel P. Schrag and Paul F. Hoffman

doi:10.1038/35053170


reply: Life, geology and snowball Earth p306

William T. Hyde, Thomas J. Crowley, Steven K. Baum and W. Richard Peltier

doi:10.1038/35053172


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Article

The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes p307

Claire M. Steppan, Shannon T. Bailey, Savitha Bhat, Elizabeth J. Brown, Ronadip R. Banerjee, Christopher M. Wright, Hiralben R. Patel, Rexford S. Ahima and Mitchell A. Lazar

doi:10.1038/35053000

See also: News and Views by Flier


Top

Letters to Nature

Non-detection at Venus of high-frequency radio signals characteristic of terrestrial lightning p313

D. A. Gurnett, P. Zarka, R. Manning, W. S. Kurth, G. B. Hospodarsky, T. F. Averkamp, M. L. Kaiser and W. M. Farrell

doi:10.1038/35053009


Tripling the capacity of wireless communications using electromagnetic polarization p316

Michael R. Andrews, Partha P. Mitra and Robert deCarvalho

doi:10.1038/35053015

See also: News and Views by Bertoni


Relationship between structural order and the anomalies of liquid water p318

Jeffrey R. Errington and Pablo G. Debenedetti

doi:10.1038/35053024

See also: News and Views by Sastry


Transparent nematic phase in a liquid-crystal-based microemulsion p321

Jun Yamamoto and Hajime Tanaka

doi:10.1038/35053035


Increased thermohaline stratification as a possible cause for an ocean anoxic event in the Cretaceous period p325

Jochen Erbacher, Brian T. Huber, Richard D. Norris and Molly Markey

doi:10.1038/35053041


300-Myr-old magmatic CO2 in natural gas reservoirs of the west Texas Permian basin p327

Chris J. Ballentine, Martin Schoell, Dennis Coleman and Bruce A. Cain

doi:10.1038/35053046

See also: News and Views by Marty


The electric Moho p331

Alan G. Jones and Ian J. Ferguson

doi:10.1038/35053053


Speciation in a ring p333

Darren E. Irwin, Staffan Bensch and Trevor D. Price

doi:10.1038/35053059

See also: News and Views by Wake


Three-butterfly system provides a field test of müllerian mimicry p338

Durrell D. Kapan

doi:10.1038/35053066


Identification of a receptor mediating Nogo-66 inhibition of axonal regeneration p341

Alyson E. Fournier, Tadzia GrandPre and Stephen M. Strittmatter

doi:10.1038/35053072


Maize yellow stripe1 encodes a membrane protein directly involved in Fe(III) uptake p346

Catherine Curie, Zivile Panaviene, Clarisse Loulergue, Stephen L. Dellaporta, Jean-Francois Briat and Elsbeth L. Walker

doi:10.1038/35053080


CD45 is a JAK phosphatase and negatively regulates cytokine receptor signalling p349

Junko Irie-Sasaki, Takehiko Sasaki, Wataru Matsumoto, Anne Opavsky, Mary Cheng, Grant Welstead, Emily Griffiths, Connie Krawczyk, Christopher D. Richardson, Karen Aitken, Norman Iscove, Gary Koretzky, Pauline Johnson, Peter Liu, David M. Rothstein and Josef M. Penninger

doi:10.1038/35053086


MAD2 haplo-insufficiency causes premature anaphase and chromosome instability in mammalian cells p355

Loren S. Michel, Vasco Liberal, Anupam Chatterjee, Regina Kirchwegger, Boris Pasche, William Gerald, Max Dobles, Peter K. Sorger, V. V. V. S. Murty and Robert Benezra

doi:10.1038/35053094


Pre-meiotic S phase is linked to reductional chromosome segregation and recombination p359

Yoshinori Watanabe, Shihori Yokobayashi, Masayuki Yamamoto and Paul Nurse

doi:10.1038/35053103


Role for a bidentate ribonuclease in the initiation step of RNA interference p363

Emily Bernstein, Amy A. Caudy, Scott M. Hammond and Gregory J. Hannon

doi:10.1038/35053110

See also: News and Views by Baulcombe


A model for SOS-lesion-targeted mutations in Escherichia coli p366

Phuong Pham, Jeffrey G. Bertram, Mike O'Donnell, Roger Woodgate and Myron F. Goodman

doi:10.1038/35053116


chi-Sequence recognition and DNA translocation by single RecBCD helicase/nuclease molecules p370

Kathleen M. Dohoney and Jeff Gelles

doi:10.1038/35053124


Processive translocation and DNA unwinding by individual RecBCD enzyme molecules p374

Piero R. Bianco, Laurence R. Brewer, Michele Corzett, Rod Balhorn, Yin Yeh, Stephen C. Kowalczykowski and Ronald J. Baskin

doi:10.1038/35053131


Crystal structure of the transcription activator BmrR bound to DNA and a drug p378

Ekaterina E. Zheleznova Heldwein and Richard G. Brennan

doi:10.1038/35053138


correction: Halocarbons produced by natural oxidation processes during degradation of organic matter p382

F. Keppler, R. Eiden, V. Niedan, J. Pracht and H. F. Schöler

doi:10.1038/35053144


erratum: Memory B-cell persistence is independent of persisting immunizing antigen p382

Mitsuo Maruyama, Kong-Peng Lam and Klaus Rajewsky

doi:10.1038/35053144


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insight

foreword

Vision things p385

Philip Campbell

doi:10.1038/35053174


feature

Synthesizing life p387

Jack W. Szostak, David P. Bartel and P. Luigi Luisi

doi:10.1038/35053176


Modelling cellular behaviour p391

Drew Endy and Roger Brent

doi:10.1038/35053181


Pasteur's Quadrant and malnutrition p397

George L. Blackburn

doi:10.1038/35053187


Actions from thoughts p403

Miguel A. L. Nicolelis

doi:10.1038/35053191


The relationship between matter and life p409

Rodney Brooks

doi:10.1038/35053196


Life's lessons in design p413

Philip Ball

doi:10.1038/35053198


Earth systems engineering and management p417

Stephen H. Schneider

doi:10.1038/35053203


Geoengineering p420

David W. Keith

doi:10.1038/35053208


Interfering for the good of a chemical reaction p422

Stuart A. Rice

doi:10.1038/35053211


Future optical and infrared telescopes p427

Roger Angel

doi:10.1038/35053217


New physics with the Compact Linear Collider p431

John Ellis and Ian Wilson

doi:10.1038/35053224


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New on the Market

Lab automation ideas p437

Automated metabolism studies, and software to go under the microscope.

doi:10.1038/35053230


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