Nature Publishing Group, publisher of Nature, and other science journals and reference works
Nature
my account e-alerts subscribe register
   
Wednesday 26 July 2017
Journal Home
Current Issue
AOP
Archive
Download PDF
References
Export citation
Export references
Send to a friend
More articles like this

Letters to Nature
Nature 382, 616 - 618 (15 August 1996); doi:10.1038/382616a0

Fingerprint of ozone depletion in the spatial and temporal pattern of recent lower-stratospheric cooling

V. Ramaswamy*, M. D. Schwarzkopf* & W. J. Randel

* NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08542, USA
National Centre for Atmospheric Research, PO Box 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80307, USA

OBSERVATIONS of air temperatures in the lower stratosphere from 1979 to 1990 reveal a cooling trend that varies both spatially and seasonally1. The possible causes of this cooling include changes in concentrations of ozone or of other greenhouse gases2,3, and entirely natural variability, but the relative contributions of such causes are poorly constrained. Here we incorporate the observed decreases in stratospheric ozone concentrations4 over the same period into a general circulation model of the atmosphere, to investigate the role of the ozone losses in affecting patterns of temperature change. We find that the simulated latitudinal pattern of lower-stratospheric cooling for a given month through the decade corresponds well with the pattern of the observed decadal temperature changes. This result confirms the expectation, from simpler model studies2,3,5, that the observed ozone depletion exerts a spatially and seasonally varying fingerprint in the decadal cooling of the lower stratosphere, with the influence of increases in concentrations of other greenhouse gases being relatively small. As anthropogenic halocarbon chemicals are important causes of stratospheric ozone depletion2,3, our study suggests a human influence on the patterns of temperature change in the lower stratosphere over this 11-year period.

------------------

References

1. Randel, W. J. & Cobb, J. B. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 5433−5447 (1994). | Article | ChemPort |
2. Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1991, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Rep. No. 25 Ch. 7 & 8 (WMO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1992).
3. Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone Change: 1994, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Rep. No. 37 Ch. 8 (WMO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1995).
4. Stolarski, R. S., Bloomfield, P., McPeters, R. D. & Herman, J. R. Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1015−1018 (1991). | ChemPort |
5. McCormack, P. & Hood, L. L. Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1615−1618 (1994). | Article |
6. Ramanathan, V. & Dickinson, R. E. J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 1084−1104 (1979). | ISI | ChemPort |
7. Fels, S. B., Mahlman, J. D., Schwarzkopf, M. D. & Sinclair, R. W. J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2265−2297 (1980). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
8. Shine, K. P. Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1331−1334 (1986). | ChemPort |
9. Kiehl, J. T., Boville, B. A. & Briegleb, B. P. Nature 332, 501−504 (1988). | Article |
10. Mahlman, J. D., Pinto, J. P. & Umscheid, L. J. J. Atmos. Sci. 51, 489−508 (1994). | Article | ISI |
11. Hansen, J. et al. Clim. Change 30, 103−117 (1995). | Article | ISI |
12. Ramaswamy, V., Schwarzkopf, M. D. & Shine, K. P. Nature 355, 810−812 (1992). | Article | ChemPort |
13. Hamilton, K. et al. J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 5−43 (1995). | Article |
14. Lacis, A., Wuebbles, D. & Logan, J. A. J. Geophys. Res. 95, 9971−9981 (1990). | ISI |
15. Schwarzkopf, M. D. & Ramaswamy, V. Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 205−208 (1993). | ChemPort |
16. McCormick, M. P., Veiga, R. E. & Chu, W. P. Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 1015−1018 (1992).
17. Randel, W. J. Tech. Note NCA/TN-295 + STR (National Center for Atmospheric Res., Boulder, Colorado, USA, 1987).
18. Labitzke, K. & van Loon, H. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn 73, 883−889 (1995).
19. Oort, A. H. & Liu, H. J. Clim. 6, 292−307 (1993). | Article | ISI |
20. Labitzke, K. & van Loon, H. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn 72, 1−10 (1994).
21. Angell, J. K. J. Clim. 1, 1296−1313 (1988). | Article |
22. Ramaswamy, V. & Bowen, M. M. J. Geophys. Res. 99, 18909−18921 (1994). | Article | ISI |
23. Shine, K. P., Derwent, R. G., Wuebbles, D. J. & Morcrett, J.-J. in Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment (eds Houghton, J. T. et al.) 41−68 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990).
24. Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone Change: 1985, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring project Rep. No. 16 Ch. 15 (WMO, Geneva, Switzerland 1986).
25. Christy, J. R. Clim. Change 31, 455−474 (1995). | Article |
26. Ramanathan, V., Cicerone, R. J., Singh, H. B. & Kiehl, J. T. J. Geophys. Res. 90, 5547−5566 (1985). | ISI | ChemPort |
27. Miller, A. J. et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 929−932 (1992).
28. Chanin, M.-L. in The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change (ed. Chanin, M.-L.) 301−317 (NATO ASI Ser. I, Global Environ. Change, Vol. 8, Springer, Berlin, 1993).
29. Sun, D.-Z. & Oort, A. H. J. Clim. 8, 1974−1987 (1995). | Article |
30. Santer, B. et al. Nature 382, 39−46 (1996). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
31. Vinnikov, K., Robock, A., Stouffer, R. J. & Manabe, S. Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 1801−1804 (1996). | Article | ChemPort |



© 1996 Nature Publishing Group
Privacy Policy