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Letters to Nature
Nature 377, 129 - 131 (14 September 1995); doi:10.1038/377129a0

Discovery of a brown dwarf in the Pleiades star cluster

R. Rebolo, M. R. Zapatero Osorio & E. L. Martín

Institute de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain

BROWN dwarfs are cool star-like objects that have insufficient mass to maintain stable nuclear fusion in their interiors. Although brown dwarfs are not stars, they are expected to form in the same way, and their frequency of occurrence should reflect the trends seen in the birthrates of low-mass stars. But finding brown dwarfs has proved to be difficult, because of their low intrinsic luminosity. The nearby Pleiades star cluster is widely recognized as a likely host for detectable brown dwarfs because of its young age — the still-contracting brown dwarfs should radiate a large fraction of their gravitational energy at near-infrared wavelengths. Here we report the discovery of a brown dwarf near the centre of the Pleiades. The luminosity and temperature of this object are so low that its mass must be less than 0.08 solar masses, the accepted lower limit on the mass of a true star1–3. The detection of only one brown dwarf within our survey area is consistent with a smooth extrapolation of the stellar mass function of the Pleiades4, suggesting that brown dwarfs, although probably quite numerous in the Galactic disk, are unlikely to comprise more than ˜1% of its mass.

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