Nature Publishing Group, publisher of Nature, and other science journals and reference works
Nature
my account e-alerts subscribe register
   
Friday 18 August 2017
Journal Home
Current Issue
AOP
Archive
Download PDF
References
Export citation
Export references
Send to a friend
More articles like this

Letters to Nature
Nature 362, 359 - 362 (25 March 1993); doi:10.1038/362359a0

Massive covert infection of helper T lymphocytes and macrophages by HIV during the incubation period of AIDS

Janet Embretson*, Mary Zupancic*, Jorge L. Ribas, Alien Burke, Paul Racz§, Klara Tenner-Racz§ & Ashley T. Haase*

*Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street S.E., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Pockville, Maryland, 20850, USA
Department Cardiovascular Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Department of Defense, Washington DC 20306, USA
§Bernhard-Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard-Nocht Strasse 74, 2000 Hamburg 36, Germany
To whom correspondence should be addressed

ANIMAL and human lentiviruses elude host defences by establishing covert infections and eventually cause disease through cumulative losses of cells that die with activation of viral gene expression1–5. We used polymerase chain reaction in situ double-label methods6,7 to determine how many CD4+ lymphocytes are latently infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patient lymph nodes and whether the pool of infected cells is large enough to account for immune depletion through continual activation of viral gene expression and attrition of cells responding to antigens. We discovered an extraordinarily large number of latently infected CD4+ lymphocytes and macrophages throughout the lymphoid system from early to late stages of infection, and confirmed8–14 the extracellular association of HIV with follicular dendritic cells. Follicular dendritic cells may transmit infection to cells as they migrate through lymphoid follicles. Latently infected lymphocytes and macrophages constitute an intracellular reservoir large enough ultimately to contribute to much of the immune depletion in AIDS, and represent a difficult problem that must be resolved in developing effective treatments and protective vaccine.

------------------

References

1. Haase, A. T. Nature 322, 130−136 (1986). | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
2. Fauci, A. S. Science 239, 617−622 (1988). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
3. Brahic, M., Stowring, L. Ventura, P. & Haase, A. T. Nature 292, 240−242 (1981). | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
4. Staskus, K. A. et al. Microbial Pathogon. 11, 67−76 (1991). | ChemPort |
5. Embretson, J. E. et al. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90, 357−361 (1993). | ChemPort |
6. Haase, A. T., Retzel, E. F. & Staskus, K. A. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87, 4971−4975 (1990). | ChemPort |
7. Brahic, M. & Haase, A. T. Curr. Top. microbiol. Immun. 143, 9−20 (1989). | ChemPort |
8. Armstrong, J. A. & Home, R. Lancet ii, 370−372 (1984).
9. Rácz, P. et al. Progr. Allergy 37, 81−181 (1986).
10. Tenner-Rácz, K. et al. Am. J. Path. 123, 9−15 (1986). | PubMed |
11. Biberfeld, P. et al. Am. J. Path. 123, 436−442 (1986).
12. Baroni, C. D., Pezzella, F., Mirolo, M., Ruco, L. P. & Rossi, G. B. Histopathology 10, 5−13 (1986). | PubMed | ChemPort |
13. Fox, C. H. et al. J. infect. Dis. 164, 1051−1057 (1991). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
14. Spiegel, H., Herbst, H., Niedobitek, G., Foss, H.-D. & Stein, H. Am. J. Path. 140, 15−22 (1992). | PubMed | ChemPort |
15. Nuovo, G. J., MacConnell, P., Forde, A. & Delvenne, P. Am. J. Path. 139, 847−854 (1991). | PubMed | ChemPort |
16. Harper, M. E., Marselle, L. M., Gallo, R. C. & Wong-Staal, F. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 772−776 (1986). | ChemPort |
17. Schuitemaker, H. et al. J. Virol. 66, 1354−1360 (1992). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
18. Chesebro, B., Wehrly, K., Nishio, J. & Perryman, S. J. Virol. 66, 6547−6554 (1992). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
19. Greene, W. C. New Engl. J. Med. 324, 308−317 (1991). | PubMed | ChemPort |
20. Peluso, R., Haase, A., Stowring, L., Edwards, M. & Ventura, P. Virology 147, 231−236 (1985). | Article | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
21. Haase, A. T. in In Situ Hybridization: Applications to Neurobiology (eds Valentino, K. L., Eberwine, J. H. & Barchas, J.D.) 197−219 (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1987).



© 1993 Nature Publishing Group
Privacy Policy