Nature Publishing Group, publisher of Nature, and other science journals and reference works
Nature
my account e-alerts subscribe register
   
Saturday 19 August 2017
Journal Home
Current Issue
AOP
Archive
Download PDF
References
Export citation
Export references
Send to a friend
More articles like this

Commentary
Nature 330, 531 - 532 (10 December 1987); doi:10.1038/330531a0

Microwaves: the risks of risk research

Kenneth R. Foster & William F. Pickard

Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
Department of Electrical Engineering, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.

After 40 years of work, the literature on the biological effects of exposure to low-level microwave energy remains shot through with ambiguity. Guidelines need to be established for halting risk research.

------------------

References

1. 1. Steneck, N.H. The Microwave Debate (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1984). 2. Safety Level of Electromagnetic Radiation with Respect to Personnel USAS Standard C95.1-1966 (United States of America Standards Institute, 1966). 3. Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 300 kHz to lOOGHz ANSI Standard C95.1-1982 (American National Standards Institute, 1982). 4. Clemmensen, J. Nonionizing Radiation: A Case for Federal Standards? (San Francisco Press, 1984). 5. Chou, C.-K., Guy, A.W. & Galambos, R.J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71,1,321-1,334(1982). 6. Frey, A.H. J. Appl. Physiol. 23,984-988 (1967). 7. Foster, K.R. & Finch, E.D. Science 185, 256-258 (1974). 8. Chou, C.-K., Guy, A.W. & Galambos, R.J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 71,1,321 -1,334 (1982). 9. Pflomm, E. Arch. Klin. Chir. 166, 251-305 (1931). 10. Osborne, S.L. & Holmquest, H.J. Technic of Electrotherapy (C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1944). 11. Frey, A.H. & Seifert, E. Life Sci. 7, II, 505-512 (1968). 12. Clapman, R.M. & Cain, C.A. /. Microwave Power 10, 411-419(1975). 13. Liu, L.-M., Rosenbaum, F.J. & Pickard, W.F. J. Microwave Power 11, 225-232 (1976). 14. Lords, J.L., Durney, C.H., Borg, A.M. & Tinney, C.E. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-21,834-836 (1973). 15. Tinney, C.E., Lords, J.L. & Durney, C.H. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-24,18-24(1976). 16. Olsen, R.G., Lords, J.L. & Durney, C.H. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 5,395-409(1977). 17. Chalker, R., Wachtel, H. & Barnes, F. Abst. 3rd Ann. Conf. Bioelectromagnet. Soc. 80(1981). 18. Caddemi, A., Tamburello, C.C., Zanforlin, L. & Torre-grossa, M.V. Bioelectromagnetics 7, 359-367 (1986). 19. Yee, K.-C., Chou, C.-K. & Guy, A.W. Bioelectromagnetics 5, 263-270 (1984). 20. Yee, K.-C., Chou, C.-K. & Guy, A.W./. Micr. Power2l, 159-165(1986). 21. Watkinson, W.P. & Gordon, C.J. Am. J. Physiol. 250, H320-H324(1986). 22. Frey, A.H. & Eichert, E.S. J. Bioelectricity 5, 201-210 (1986). 23. Polyashchuk, L. Dokl Akad. Nauk. Ukrain. 8, 754-758 (1972). 24. Frey. A.H., Feld, S.R. & Frey, B. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 247,433-438(1975). 25. Oscar, K.J. & Hawkins, D. Brain Res. 125, 281-293 (1977). 26. Merritt, J.H., Chamness, A.F. & Alien, S.J. Rad. Environ. Biophys. 15,367-377(1978). 27. Frey, A.H. Bioelectromagnetics Soc. Newsl. 1,4 (1980). 28. Preston, E., Vavasour, E.J. & Assenheim, H.M. Brain Res. 174,109-117(1979). 29. Lin, J.C. & Lin, M.F. Rad. Res. 89, 77-87 (1982). 30. Williams, W.M. et al. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-32, 808-817 (1984). 31. Gruenau, S.P., Oscar, K.J., Folker, M.T. & Rapoport, S.I. Exp. Neur. 75, 299-307 (1982). 32. Carstensen, E.L. Biological Effects of Transmission Line Fields (Elsevier, New York, 1987). Kenneth R. Foster is in the Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA, and William F. Pickard is in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.



© 1987 Nature Publishing Group
Privacy Policy