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Article
Nature 290, 457 - 465 (09 April 1981); doi:10.1038/290457a0

Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome

S. Anderson, A. T. Bankier, B. G. Barrell, M. H. L. de Bruijn, A. R. Coulson, J. Drouin*, I. C. Eperon, D. P. Nierlich*, B. A. Roe*, F. Sanger, P. H. Schreier*, A. J. H. Smith, R. Staden & I. G. Young*

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QH, UK
*Present addresses: Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, USA (J.D.); Department of Microbiology, College of Letters and Science, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA (D.P.N.); Chemistry Department, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44242, USA (B.A.R.); Institut für Genetik der Universität, 5 Koln 41, Weyertal 121, FRG (P.H.S.); Department of Biochemistry, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, PO Box 334, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia (I.G.Y.).

The complete sequence of the 16,569-base pair human mitochondrial genome is presented. The genes for the 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II and III, ATPase subunit 6, cytochrome b and eight other predicted protein coding genes have been located. The sequence shows extreme economy in that the genes have none or only a few noncoding bases between them, and in many cases the termination codons are not coded in the DNA but are created post-transcriptionally by polyadenylation of the mRNAs.

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