Nature Publishing Group, publisher of Nature, and other science journals and reference works
Nature
my account e-alerts subscribe register
   
Monday 23 October 2017
Journal Home
Current Issue
AOP
Archive
Download PDF
References
Export citation
Export references
Send to a friend
More articles like this

News and Views
Nature 289, 127 - 130 (15 January 1981); doi:10.1038/289127a0

Fallacies of lifestyle cancer theories

Samuel S. Epstein* & Joel B. Swartz

*Professor of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Assistant Professor of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at the Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois 60680

Self-interest of the chemical industry apart, the lifestyle theory of cancer causation is held to reflect misinformation and ‘inactive conservatism’.

------------------

References

1. Peto, R. Nature 284, 297−300 (1980). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
2. Epstein, S. S. The Politics of Cancer (Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, 1978, revised and expanded in Anchor/Doubleday, New York, 1979); quotations refer to the 1979 edition.
3. AIHC Recommended Alternatives to OSHA's Generic Carcinogen Proposal, Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Docket No. H-090) (American Industrial Health Council, 24 February, 1978).
4. Vital Statistics—Special Reports, U.S. DHEW, 43, 163 (1956); Vital Statistics of the U.S. 2 (1970).
5. Pollack, E. S. & Horm, J. W. J. natn. Cancer Inst. 64, 1091 (1980). | ChemPort |
6. Trends in Mortality, 1951−1975 (U. K. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, Series DH1, No. 3, 1978).
7. Third National Cancer Survey, 1969−1971 (NCI, Bethesda); Cancer Surveillance Epi-demiology and End Results (SEER) Program.
8. Schneiderman, M. Occupational Safety & Health Administration OSHA Docket 090 ( 4 April, 1978).
9. Zdeb, M. S. Am. J. Epidemiol. 106, 6 (1977). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
10. Davis, D. L. & Magee, B. H. Science 206, 1356 (1979); see also U.S. International Trade Commission Reports. | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
11. Chemical Dangers in the Workplace, 34th Report of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives (September 27, 1976).
12. Enstrom, J. E. J. natn. Cancer Inst. 62, 755 (1979). | ChemPort |
13. Sterling, T. D. Int. J. Hlth Services 8, 437 (1978). | ChemPort |
14. Newhouse, M. L. & Wagner, J. C. Br. J. ind. Med. 26, 302 (1969). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
15. Wynder, E. L. & Stellman, S. D. Cancer Res. 37, 4608 (1977). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
16. Wagoner, J. K., Infante, P. F. & Bayliss, D. L. Envir. Res. 21, 15 (1980). | ISI | ChemPort |
17. Mancuso, T. F. & Sterling, T. D. J. natn. med. Ass. 67, 107 (1975).
18. Archer, V. E., Gillam, J. D. & Wagoner, J. K. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 271, 280 (1976). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
19. Axelson, O. & Sundell, L. Scand. J. Work envir. Hlth 4, 46 (1978). | ChemPort |
20. Yamada, A. Acta path. jap. 13, 131 (1963). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
21. Pinto, S. S. Archs envir. Hlth 33, 325 (1978). | ChemPort |
22. Weiss, W. & Boucot, K. R. J. Am. med. Ass. 234, 1139 (1975). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
23. Mason, J. T. & McKay, F. W. Atlas of Cancer Mortality for U.S. Counties: 1950−1969 (Dept H.E.W., Washington, D.C., 1975); Atlas of Cancer Mortality for U.S. Counties among U.S. Non-Whites (Dept H.E.W., Washington, D.C., 1976).
24. Blot, W. J. et al. Science 198, 51 (1977). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
25. Carnow, B. Envir. Hlth Perspect. 22, 17 (1978). | ChemPort |
26. Armstrong, B. K. & Doll, R. Int. J. Cancer 15, 617 (1975). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
27. Cole, P., Monson, R. R., Haning, H. & Friedell, G. H. New Engl. J. Med. 284, 129 (1971). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
28. Wynder, E. L., Mabuchi, K., Maruch, N. & Fortner, J. G. Cancer 31, 641 (1973). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
29. Cole, P. & Goldman, R. Persons at High Risk of Cancer: An Approach to Cancer Etiology and Control (ed. Fraumeni, J. F. Jr) 167−184 (Academic, New York, 1975).
30. Blot, W. J. & Fraumeni, J. J. natn. Cancer Inst. 61, 1017 (1978). | ChemPort |
31. Hoover, R. & Fraumeni, J. Envir. Res. 9, 196 (1975). | ISI | ChemPort |
32. Milham, J.. in Occupational Carcinogenesis (eds Wagoner, J. & Saffiotti, U.) 243−249 (New York Academy of Sciences, 1976).
33. Berg, J. W. in Persons at High Risk of Cancer: An Approach to Cancer Etiology and Control (ed. Fraumeni, J. F. Jr) 201−224 (Academic, New York, 1975).
34. Phillips, R. L. Cancer Res. 35, 3513 (1975). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
35. Millet, A. B. et al. Am. J. Epidemiol. 107, 499 (1978). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
36. Doll, R. Cancer Res. 45, 2475 (1980). | ChemPort |
37. Caroll, K. K. Cancer Res. 35, 3374 (1975). | PubMed |
38. Higginson, J. & Muir, C. S. J. natn. Cancer Inst. 63, 1291 (1979). | ChemPort |
39. Wynder, E. L. & Gori, G. B. Am. J. Publ. Hlth 66, 359 (1977).
40. Maugh, T. H. Science 205, 1363 (1979). | PubMed |
41. Doll, R. Nature 265, 589 (1977). | PubMed | ISI | ChemPort |
42. Selikoff, I. J. & Hammond, C. E. J. Am. med. Ass. 242, 458 (1979). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
43. Bridbord, K. et al. Estimates of the Fraction of Cancer in the United States Related to Occupational Factors (National Cancer Institute, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 15 September, 1978).
44. Stellman, J. M. & Stellman, S. D. What Proportion of Cancer is Attributable to Occupation; Statistical and Social Consideration (American Society for Preventive Oncology, Chicago, 6−7 March, 1980).
45. Report of an IARC Working Group Cancer Res. 40, 1 (1980). | ISI |
46. Toxic Chemicals and Public Protection (Report to the President of the Toxic Substances Strategy Committee of the Council on Environmental Quality, May, 1980).
47. Stallones, R. A. & Downs, T. A Critical Review of Bridbord, K. et al. prepared for the American Industrial Health Council (1979).



© 1981 Nature Publishing Group
Privacy Policy