Nature Publishing Group, publisher of Nature, and other science journals and reference works
my account e-alerts subscribe register
Monday 21 August 2017
Journal Home
Current Issue
Download PDF
Export citation
Export references
Send to a friend
More articles like this

Letters to Nature
Nature 246, 425 - 427 (14 December 1973); doi:10.1038/246425a0

Morphine-induced Suppression of Voluntary Alcohol Drinking in Rats


*Research Laboratories of the State Alcohol Monopoly (ALKO), 00101 Helsinki 10
Department of Psychology, Sangamon State University, Springfield, Illinois
Department of Psychology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon

A DEBATE has arisen over whether there is a relationship between alcohol and morphine addictions. With the classical phenomena associated with addiction there is little or no evidence for a connection between the two drugs1–4. The short-term effects are different, the withdrawal symptoms are different, morphine antagonists do not precipitate withdrawal in alcohol-dependent animals, and usually no cross-dependencies or cross-tolerances have been found, although there are reports of increased tolerance for morphine in mice that have been habituated to alcohol5 and in some human alcoholics6.



1. Goldstein, A., and Judson, B. A., Science, N.Y., 172, 290 (1971).
2. Haluska, P. V., and Hoffman, P. C., Science, N.Y., 169, 1104 (1970).
3. Seevers, M. H., Science, N.Y., 170, 113 (1972).
4. Stolerman, I. P., Kumar, R., and Steinberg, H., Psychopharmacologia, 20, 321 (1971).
5. Venho, I., Eerola, R., Venho, E. V., and Vartiainen, O., Ann. Med. exp. Biol. Fenn., 33, 249 (1955).
6. Seevers, M. H., and Deneau, G. A., in Physiological Pharmacology (edit. by Root, W. S., and Hofmann, F. G.), 565 (Academic, New York, 1963).
7. Isbell, H., Fraser, H. F., Wikler, A., Belleville, R. E., and Eisenman, A. J., Q. Jl Stud. Alc., 16, 1 (1955).
8. Kalant, H., and Dews, P. E., in Experimental Approaches to the Study of Drug Dependence (edit. by Kalant, H., and Hawkins, R. D.), 109 (Univ. of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1969).
9. Nichols, J., and Hsiao, S., Science, N.Y., 157, 561 (1967).
10. Eriksson, K., and Kiianmaa, K., Ann. Med. exp. Biol. Fenn., 49, 73 (1972).
11. LeMagnen, J., J. Physiol., Paris, 52, 873 (1960).
12. Sinclair, J. D., and Senter, R. J., Psychon. Sci., 8, 11 (1967).
13. Sinclair, J. D., and Senter, R. J., Q. Jl Stud. Alc., 29, 863 (1968).
14. Sinclair, J. D., Q. Jl Stud. Alc., 33, 769 (1972).
15. Sinclair, J. D., Psychon. Sci., 25, 21 (1971).
16. Sinclair, J. D., Walker, S., and Jordan, B., Q. Jl Stud. Alc. (in the press).
17. Parker, L., Failor, A., and Weidman, K., J. comp. physiol. Psychol., 82, 294 (1973).
18. Maier, S. F., Zahorik, D. M., and Albin, R. W., J. comp. physiol. Psychol., 74, 254 (1971).

© 1973 Nature Publishing Group
Privacy Policy