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Volume 553 Number 7687 pp128-238

11 January 2018

About the cover

The cover shows the William E. Gordon Telescope at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. Jason Hessels and his colleagues used the telescope in their attempt to clarify the physical nature of the only known source of repeating fast radio bursts. Lasting about a millisecond each, these bursts come from a star-forming region in a dwarf galaxy. Hessels and his co-authors observed that the bursts were nearly 100% linearly polarized and had a very high Faraday rotation measure. Such results require the presence of an environment of extreme magnetized plasma, which has previously been seen only around massive black holes. As a result, the authors suggest that the radio bursts possibly come from a neutron star in such an environment (although the team notes that, in principle, the bursts could originate from a neutron star surrounded by either a highly magnetized wind nebula or a supernova remnant). Image: Image design: Danielle Futselaar; Photo usage: Brian P. Irwin/Dennis van de Water/Shutterstock.com

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  • Exoplanet science 2.0

    The study of life on and off Earth needs unified funding and a coherent plan, say Caleb Scharf, Debra Fischer and Victoria Meadows. 

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  • Rotation in [C ii]-emitting gas in two galaxies at a redshift of 6.8

    • Renske Smit
    • Rychard J. Bouwens
    • Stefano Carniani
    • Pascal A. Oesch
    • Ivo Labbé
    • Garth D. Illingworth
    • Paul van der Werf
    • Larry D. Bradley
    • Valentino Gonzalez
    • Jacqueline A. Hodge
    • Benne W. Holwerda
    • Roberto Maiolino
    • Wei Zheng

    The emission of singly ionized carbon is used to identify two galaxies with redshifts of nearly 7—corresponding to the Universe’s first billion years—and with velocity structures suggestive of rotation.

  • An extreme magneto-ionic environment associated with the fast radio burst source FRB 121102

    • D. Michilli
    • A. Seymour
    • J. W. T. Hessels
    • L. G. Spitler
    • V. Gajjar
    • A. M. Archibald
    • G. C. Bower
    • S. Chatterjee
    • J. M. Cordes
    • K. Gourdji
    • G. H. Heald
    • V. M. Kaspi
    • C. J. Law
    • C. Sobey
    • E. A. K. Adams
    • C. G. Bassa
    • S. Bogdanov
    • C. Brinkman
    • P. Demorest
    • F. Fernandez
    • G. Hellbourg
    • T. J. W. Lazio
    • R. S. Lynch
    • N. Maddox
    • B. Marcote
    • M. A. McLaughlin
    • Z. Paragi
    • S. M. Ransom
    • P. Scholz
    • A. P. V. Siemion
    • S. P. Tendulkar
    • P. Van Rooy
    • R. S. Wharton
    • D. Whitlow

    Polarimetric observations of the repeating fast radio burst source FRB 121102 suggest that the bursts may originate from a neutron star in the extreme magneto-ionic environment of an accreting massive black hole or supernova remnant.

  • Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites

    • Michael A. Becker
    • Roman Vaxenburg
    • Georgian Nedelcu
    • Peter C. Sercel
    • Andrew Shabaev
    • Michael J. Mehl
    • John G. Michopoulos
    • Samuel G. Lambrakos
    • Noam Bernstein
    • John L. Lyons
    • Thilo Stöferle
    • Rainer F. Mahrt
    • Maksym V. Kovalenko
    • David J. Norris
    • Gabriele Rainò
    • Alexander L. Efros

    The lowest-energy exciton state in caesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals is shown to be a bright triplet state, contrary to expectations that lowest-energy excitons should always be dark.

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  • Fire frequency drives decadal changes in soil carbon and nitrogen and ecosystem productivity

    • Adam F. A. Pellegrini
    • Anders Ahlström
    • Sarah E. Hobbie
    • Peter B. Reich
    • Lars P. Nieradzik
    • A. Carla Staver
    • Bryant C. Scharenbroch
    • Ari Jumpponen
    • William R. L. Anderegg
    • James T. Randerson
    • Robert B. Jackson

    A meta-analysis and field data show that frequent fires in savannas and broadleaf forests decrease soil carbon and nitrogen over many decades; modelling shows that nitrogen loss drives carbon loss by reducing net primary productivity.

  • Successful conservation of global waterbird populations depends on effective governance

    • Tatsuya Amano
    • Tamás Székely
    • Brody Sandel
    • Szabolcs Nagy
    • Taej Mundkur
    • Tom Langendoen
    • Daniel Blanco
    • Candan U. Soykan
    • William J. Sutherland

    Statistical modelling of global survey datasets of waterbirds as an indicator taxon for biodiversity changes in wetland ecosystems demonstrates that effective governance is the strongest predictor of species abundance increases and conservation benefits.

  • Terminal Pleistocene Alaskan genome reveals first founding population of Native Americans

    • J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar
    • Ben A. Potter
    • Lasse Vinner
    • Matthias Steinrücken
    • Simon Rasmussen
    • Jonathan Terhorst
    • John A. Kamm
    • Anders Albrechtsen
    • Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas
    • Martin Sikora
    • Joshua D. Reuther
    • Joel D. Irish
    • Ripan S. Malhi
    • Ludovic Orlando
    • Yun S. Song
    • Rasmus Nielsen
    • David J. Meltzer
    • Eske Willerslev

    An Ancient Beringian population from Late Pleistocene Alaska and the ancestors of other Native American groups descended from a single founding population that diversified around twenty thousand years ago.

  • Precision editing of the gut microbiota ameliorates colitis

    • Wenhan Zhu
    • Maria G. Winter
    • Mariana X. Byndloss
    • Luisella Spiga
    • Breck A. Duerkop
    • Elizabeth R. Hughes
    • Lisa Büttner
    • Everton de Lima Romão
    • Cassie L. Behrendt
    • Christopher A. Lopez
    • Luis Sifuentes-Dominguez
    • Kayci Huff-Hardy
    • R. Paul Wilson
    • Caroline C. Gillis
    • Çagla Tükel
    • Andrew Y. Koh
    • Ezra Burstein
    • Lora V. Hooper
    • Andreas J. Bäumler
    • Sebastian E. Winter

    Tungstate inhibits molybdenum-cofactor-dependent microbial respiratory pathways and shows potential as a selective treatment for microbial imbalances that occur during inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.

  • Clonal analysis of lineage fate in native haematopoiesis

    • Alejo E. Rodriguez-Fraticelli
    • Samuel L. Wolock
    • Caleb S. Weinreb
    • Riccardo Panero
    • Sachin H. Patel
    • Maja Jankovic
    • Jianlong Sun
    • Raffaele A. Calogero
    • Allon M. Klein
    • Fernando D. Camargo

    Transposon tagging to clonally trace progenitors and stem cells provides evidence for a substantially revised roadmap for unperturbed haematopoiesis, and highlights unique properties of multipotent progenitors and haematopoietic stem cells in situ.

  • Treatment of autosomal dominant hearing loss by in vivo delivery of genome editing agents

    • Xue Gao
    • Yong Tao
    • Veronica Lamas
    • Mingqian Huang
    • Wei-Hsi Yeh
    • Bifeng Pan
    • Yu-Juan Hu
    • Johnny H. Hu
    • David B. Thompson
    • Yilai Shu
    • Yamin Li
    • Hongyang Wang
    • Shiming Yang
    • Qiaobing Xu
    • Daniel B. Polley
    • M. Charles Liberman
    • Wei-Jia Kong
    • Jeffrey R. Holt
    • Zheng-Yi Chen
    • David R. Liu

    CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing is used to correct a dominant-negative mutation in a mouse model of inherited deafness, resulting in improvements in cochlear function and hearing.

    See also
  • A metabolic function of FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions in cancer

    • Véronique Frattini
    • Stefano M. Pagnotta
    • Tala
    • Jerry J. Fan
    • Marco V. Russo
    • Sang Bae Lee
    • Luciano Garofano
    • Jing Zhang
    • Peiguo Shi
    • Genevieve Lewis
    • Heloise Sanson
    • Vanessa Frederick
    • Angelica M. Castano
    • Luigi Cerulo
    • Delphine C. M. Rolland
    • Raghvendra Mall
    • Karima Mokhtari
    • Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson
    • Marc Sanson
    • Xi Huang
    • Michele Ceccarelli
    • Anna Lasorella
    • Antonio Iavarone

    Oncogenic FGFR3–TACC3 gene fusions signal through phosphorylated PIN4 to trigger biogenesis of peroxisomes and synthesis of new proteins, enabling mitochondrial respiration and tumour growth.

  • Opening of the human epithelial calcium channel TRPV6

    • Luke L. McGoldrick
    • Appu K. Singh
    • Kei Saotome
    • Maria V. Yelshanskaya
    • Edward C. Twomey
    • Robert A. Grassucci
    • Alexander I. Sobolevsky

    The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the calcium channel TRPV6 in its open and closed states demonstrates a novel gating mechanism involving an alanine hinge.

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