Current Issue

Volume 553 Number 7688 pp249-366

18 January 2018

About the cover

The cover is a surface–ribbon hybrid image showing the topology of the RNA Pol III/TFIIIB/DNA complex. RNA polymerase III (Pol III) catalyses the transcription of short RNAs that are essential for protein synthesis during cell growth. Pol III is predominantly regulated at the level of transcription initiation, and dysregulated Pol III activity is linked to diseases including cancer. In this issue, two independent studies from the labs of Alessandro Vannini and Christoph Müller describe cryo-electron microscopy structures of the yeast Pol III pre-initiation complex (PIC) comprising the full 17-subunit Pol III and the three TFIIIB subunits TBP (pink), Brf1 (yellow) and Bdp1 (orange) bound to promoter DNA in various functional states (the loops stabilizing the unwound DNA strands at both sides of the cleft are depicted as bright cyan ribbons). The structures elucidate the detailed mechanisms of how Pol III is recruited to its target promoters and how promoter DNA is opened to form a stable transcription bubble. They also allow a comparison with the structures of Pol I and Pol II PICs. Cover image: Alessandro Vannini/Jeroen Claus (Phospho Biomedical Animation)

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  • Make lighting healthier

    Artificial illumination can stop us sleeping and make us ill. We need fresh strategies and technologies, argues Karolina M. Zielinska-Dabkowska.

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  • Black-hole-regulated star formation in massive galaxies

    • Ignacio Martín-Navarro
    • Jean P. Brodie
    • Aaron J. Romanowsky
    • Tomás Ruiz-Lara
    • Glenn van de Ven

    The star formation histories of galaxies, as encapsulated in their integrated optical spectra, depend on the mass of the black holes present at their centres.

  • Large granulation cells on the surface of the giant star π1 Gruis

    • C. Paladini
    • F. Baron
    • A. Jorissen
    • J.-B. Le Bouquin
    • B. Freytag
    • S. Van Eck
    • M. Wittkowski
    • J. Hron
    • A. Chiavassa
    • J.-P. Berger
    • C. Siopis
    • A. Mayer
    • G. Sadowski
    • K. Kravchenko
    • S. Shetye
    • F. Kerschbaum
    • J. Kluska
    • S. Ramstedt

    Interferometric images of the surface of the giant star π1 Gruis reveal few but large convective cells, consistent with existing models of stellar surface convection.

  • A global map of travel time to cities to assess inequalities in accessibility in 2015

    • D. J. Weiss
    • A. Nelson
    • H. S. Gibson
    • W. Temperley
    • S. Peedell
    • A. Lieber
    • M. Hancher
    • E. Poyart
    • S. Belchior
    • N. Fullman
    • B. Mappin
    • U. Dalrymple
    • J. Rozier
    • T. C. D. Lucas
    • R. E. Howes
    • L. S. Tusting
    • S. Y. Kang
    • E. Cameron
    • D. Bisanzio
    • K. E. Battle
    • S. Bhatt
    • P. W. Gething

    Travel time to cities in 2015 is quantified in a high-resolution global map that will be useful for socio-economic policy design and conservation research.

  • Paternal chromosome loss and metabolic crisis contribute to hybrid inviability in Xenopus

    • Romain Gibeaux
    • Rachael Acker
    • Maiko Kitaoka
    • Georgios Georgiou
    • Ila van Kruijsbergen
    • Breanna Ford
    • Edward M. Marcotte
    • Daniel K. Nomura
    • Taejoon Kwon
    • Gert Jan C. Veenstra
    • Rebecca Heald

    In hybrid inviability between Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis, genomic regions on two X. laevis chromosomes are incompatible with the X. tropicalis cytoplasm and are mis-segregated during mitosis, leading to unbalanced gene expression at the maternal to zygotic transition, followed by cell-autonomous catastrophic embryo death.

  • An extracellular network of Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases

    • Elwira Smakowska-Luzan
    • G. Adam Mott
    • Katarzyna Parys
    • Martin Stegmann
    • Timothy C Howton
    • Mehdi Layeghifard
    • Jana Neuhold
    • Anita Lehner
    • Jixiang Kong
    • Karin Grünwald
    • Natascha Weinberger
    • Santosh B. Satbhai
    • Dominik Mayer
    • Wolfgang Busch
    • Mathias Madalinski
    • Peggy Stolt-Bergner
    • Nicholas J. Provart
    • M. Shahid Mukhtar
    • Cyril Zipfel
    • Darrell Desveaux
    • David S. Guttman
    • Youssef Belkhadir

    A high-throughput assay is used to analyse 40,000 potential extracellular domain interactions of a large family of plant cell surface receptors (LRR-RKs) and provide a cell surface interaction network for these receptors.

  • High response rate to PD-1 blockade in desmoplastic melanomas

    • Zeynep Eroglu
    • Jesse M. Zaretsky
    • Siwen Hu-Lieskovan
    • Dae Won Kim
    • Alain Algazi
    • Douglas B. Johnson
    • Elizabeth Liniker
    • Ben Kong
    • Rodrigo Munhoz
    • Suthee Rapisuwon
    • Pier Federico Gherardini
    • Bartosz Chmielowski
    • Xiaoyan Wang
    • I. Peter Shintaku
    • Cody Wei
    • Jeffrey A. Sosman
    • Richard W. Joseph
    • Michael A. Postow
    • Matteo S. Carlino
    • Wen-Jen Hwu
    • Richard A. Scolyer
    • Jane Messina
    • Alistair J. Cochran
    • Georgina V. Long
    • Antoni Ribas

    Immune checkpoint blockade with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 agents produces a high response rate in patients with desmoplastic melanoma.

  • AMD1 mRNA employs ribosome stalling as a mechanism for molecular memory formation

    • Martina M. Yordanova
    • Gary Loughran
    • Alexander V. Zhdanov
    • Marco Mariotti
    • Stephen J. Kiniry
    • Patrick B. F. O’Connor
    • Dmitry E. Andreev
    • Ioanna Tzani
    • Paul Saffert
    • Audrey M. Michel
    • Vadim N. Gladyshev
    • Dmitry B. Papkovsky
    • John F. Atkins
    • Pavel V. Baranov

    A regulatory mechanism that limits the number of complete protein molecules that can be synthesized from a single mRNA molecule of the human AMD1 gene encoding adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1.

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