Letters

  • Letter |

    A reinforcement learning approach allows a suitably equipped glider to navigate thermal plumes autonomously in an open field.

    • Gautam Reddy
    • , Jerome Wong-Ng
    • , Antonio Celani
    • , Terrence J. Sejnowski
    •  & Massimo Vergassola
  • Letter |

    The diversity in the hydraulic traits of trees mediates ecosystem resilience to drought and will probably have an important role in future ecosystem–atmosphere feedback effects.

    • William R. L. Anderegg
    • , Alexandra G. Konings
    • , Anna T. Trugman
    • , Kailiang Yu
    • , David R. Bowling
    • , Robert Gabbitas
    • , Daniel S. Karp
    • , Stephen Pacala
    • , John S. Sperry
    • , Benjamin N. Sulman
    •  & Nicole Zenes
  • Letter |

    The absolute timing of the photoelectric effect has proved difficult to measure, but the delay between photon arrival at a tungsten surface and ejection of photoelectrons has now been determined.

    • M. Ossiander
    • , J. Riemensberger
    • , S. Neppl
    • , M. Mittermair
    • , M. Schäffer
    • , A. Duensing
    • , M. S. Wagner
    • , R. Heider
    • , M. Wurzer
    • , M. Gerl
    • , M. Schnitzenbaumer
    • , J. V. Barth
    • , F. Libisch
    • , C. Lemell
    • , J. Burgdörfer
    • , P. Feulner
    •  & R. Kienberger
  • Letter |

    • Yang Liu
    • , Qi Zhao
    • , Ming-Han Li
    • , Jian-Yu Guan
    • , Yanbao Zhang
    • , Bing Bai
    • , Weijun Zhang
    • , Wen-Zhao Liu
    • , Cheng Wu
    • , Xiao Yuan
    • , Hao Li
    • , W. J. Munro
    • , Zhen Wang
    • , Lixing You
    • , Jun Zhang
    • , Xiongfeng Ma
    • , Jingyun Fan
    • , Qiang Zhang
    •  & Jian-Wei Pan
  • Letter |

    An analysis of the motions of six million stars in the Milky Way disk reveals substructures such as snail shells and ridges, indicating that our Galaxy has been recently perturbed.

    • T. Antoja
    • , A. Helmi
    • , M. Romero-Gómez
    • , D. Katz
    • , C. Babusiaux
    • , R. Drimmel
    • , D. W. Evans
    • , F. Figueras
    • , E. Poggio
    • , C. Reylé
    • , A. C. Robin
    • , G. Seabroke
    •  & C. Soubiran
  • Letter |

    The mitotic spindle prevents normal nuclear envelope assembly on missegregated chromosomes, leading to spontaneous envelope disruption of micronuclei and subsequent genome instability.

    • Shiwei Liu
    • , Mijung Kwon
    • , Mark Mannino
    • , Nachen Yang
    • , Fioranna Renda
    • , Alexey Khodjakov
    •  & David Pellman
  • Letter |

    Studies of an Antarctic marine sediment core suggest that the East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreated in the vicinity of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin during extended warm periods of the late Pleistocene, when temperatures were similar to those predicted to occur within this century.

    • David J. Wilson
    • , Rachel A. Bertram
    • , Emma F. Needham
    • , Tina van de Flierdt
    • , Kevin J. Welsh
    • , Robert M. McKay
    • , Anannya Mazumder
    • , Christina R. Riesselman
    • , Francisco J. Jimenez-Espejo
    •  & Carlota Escutia
  • Letter |

    METTL3, the enzyme responsible for m6A modification, influences translation by interacting with eIF3h to mediate looping between the regions near the stop codon and 5′ cap of mRNA.

    • Junho Choe
    • , Shuibin Lin
    • , Wencai Zhang
    • , Qi Liu
    • , Longfei Wang
    • , Julia Ramirez-Moya
    • , Peng Du
    • , Wantae Kim
    • , Shaojun Tang
    • , Piotr Sliz
    • , Pilar Santisteban
    • , Rani E. George
    • , William G. Richards
    • , Kwok-Kin Wong
    • , Nicolas Locker
    • , Frank J. Slack
    •  & Richard I. Gregory
  • Letter |

    Biomechanical analyses of mammaliaform and cynodont fossils demonstrate that miniaturization drove the evolutionary transformation of the mammalian jaw, which preceded the optimization of bite force-to-joint load in the mandible

    • Stephan Lautenschlager
    • , Pamela G. Gill
    • , Zhe-Xi Luo
    • , Michael J. Fagan
    •  & Emily J. Rayfield
  • Letter |

    The retromer complex (the vacuolar protein sorting heterotrimer Vps26–Vps29–Vps35) has been resolved in association with membranes and the sorting nexin protein Vps5 using cryo-electron tomography.

    • Oleksiy Kovtun
    • , Natalya Leneva
    • , Yury S. Bykov
    • , Nicholas Ariotti
    • , Rohan D. Teasdale
    • , Miroslava Schaffer
    • , Benjamin D. Engel
    • , David. J. Owen
    • , John A. G. Briggs
    •  & Brett M. Collins
  • Letter |

    Time-asymmetric light transmission over the entire optical communications band is achieved using a silicon photonic structure with photonic modes that dynamically encircle an exceptional point in the optical domain.

    • Jae Woong Yoon
    • , Youngsun Choi
    • , Choloong Hahn
    • , Gunpyo Kim
    • , Seok Ho Song
    • , Ki-Yeon Yang
    • , Jeong Yub Lee
    • , Yongsung Kim
    • , Chang Seung Lee
    • , Jai Kwang Shin
    • , Hong-Seok Lee
    •  & Pierre Berini
  • Letter |

    During starvation, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) targets GTPase-activating proteins to inhibit multiple intracellular transport pathways, thereby promoting energy homeostasis.

    • Jia-Shu Yang
    • , Jia-Wei Hsu
    • , Seung-Yeol Park
    • , Jian Li
    • , William M. Oldham
    • , Galina V. Beznoussenko
    • , Alexander A. Mironov
    • , Joseph Loscalzo
    •  & Victor W. Hsu
  • Letter |

    A silcrete flake with a 73,000-year-old cross-hatched ochre drawing, from Blombos Cave, South Africa, demonstrates that early Homo sapiens used a range of media and techniques to produce graphic representations.

    • Christopher S. Henshilwood
    • , Francesco d’Errico
    • , Karen L. van Niekerk
    • , Laure Dayet
    • , Alain Queffelec
    •  & Luca Pollarolo
  • Letter |

    The topological magnet Fe3Sn2 exhibits a giant nematic energy shift of a many-body electronic state, demonstrating anisotropic spin–orbit tunability.

    • Jia-Xin Yin
    • , Songtian S. Zhang
    • , Hang Li
    • , Kun Jiang
    • , Guoqing Chang
    • , Bingjing Zhang
    • , Biao Lian
    • , Cheng Xiang
    • , Ilya Belopolski
    • , Hao Zheng
    • , Tyler A. Cochran
    • , Su-Yang Xu
    • , Guang Bian
    • , Kai Liu
    • , Tay-Rong Chang
    • , Hsin Lin
    • , Zhong-Yi Lu
    • , Ziqiang Wang
    • , Shuang Jia
    • , Wenhong Wang
    •  & M. Zahid Hasan
  • Letter |

    A strategy developed to define off-target effects of gene-editing nucleases in whole organisms is validated and leveraged to show that CRISPR–Cas9 nucleases can be used effectively in vivo without inducing detectable off-target mutations.

    • Pinar Akcakaya
    • , Maggie L. Bobbin
    • , Jimmy A. Guo
    • , Jose Malagon-Lopez
    • , Kendell Clement
    • , Sara P. Garcia
    • , Mick D. Fellows
    • , Michelle J. Porritt
    • , Mike A. Firth
    • , Alba Carreras
    • , Tania Baccega
    • , Frank Seeliger
    • , Mikael Bjursell
    • , Shengdar Q. Tsai
    • , Nhu T. Nguyen
    • , Roberto Nitsch
    • , Lorenz M. Mayr
    • , Luca Pinello
    • , Mohammad Bohlooly-Y
    • , Martin J. Aryee
    • , Marcello Maresca
    •  & J. Keith Joung
  • Letter |

    A global modelling approach shows that in response to rises in global sea level, gains of up to 60% in coastal wetland areas are possible, if appropriate coastal management solutions are developed to help support wetland resilience.

    • Mark Schuerch
    • , Tom Spencer
    • , Stijn Temmerman
    • , Matthew L. Kirwan
    • , Claudia Wolff
    • , Daniel Lincke
    • , Chris J. McOwen
    • , Mark D. Pickering
    • , Ruth Reef
    • , Athanasios T. Vafeidis
    • , Jochen Hinkel
    • , Robert J. Nicholls
    •  & Sally Brown
  • Letter |

    Somatosensory corticospinal neurons facilitate touch sensitivity and touch-evoked neuropathic pain in mice.

    • Yuanyuan Liu
    • , Alban Latremoliere
    • , Xinjian Li
    • , Zicong Zhang
    • , Mengying Chen
    • , Xuhua Wang
    • , Chao Fang
    • , Junjie Zhu
    • , Chloe Alexandre
    • , Zhongyang Gao
    • , Bo Chen
    • , Xin Ding
    • , Jin-Yong Zhou
    • , Yiming Zhang
    • , Chinfei Chen
    • , Kuan Hong Wang
    • , Clifford J. Woolf
    •  & Zhigang He
  • Letter |

    Tunable spin transport over long distances is demonstrated through the antiferromagnetic insulator haematite, paving the way to the development of spin-logic devices based on antiferromagnetic insulators.

    • R. Lebrun
    • , A. Ross
    • , S. A. Bender
    • , A. Qaiumzadeh
    • , L. Baldrati
    • , J. Cramer
    • , A. Brataas
    • , R. A. Duine
    •  & M. Kläui
  • Letter |

    The Gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes pathogen possesses a distinctive extracellular electron transfer mechanism, which is probably present in numerous ecologically diverse species of the Firmcutes phylum.

    • Samuel H. Light
    • , Lin Su
    • , Rafael Rivera-Lugo
    • , Jose A. Cornejo
    • , Alexander Louie
    • , Anthony T. Iavarone
    • , Caroline M. Ajo-Franklin
    •  & Daniel A. Portnoy
  • Letter |

    Training of mice to associate a particular sound frequency with locomotion results in selective suppression of cortical responses to that frequency during movement, consistent with a motor-dependent form of auditory cortical plasticity.

    • David M. Schneider
    • , Janani Sundararajan
    •  & Richard Mooney
  • Letter |

    Observations of a hot flow anomaly accelerating solar-wind ions suggest a mechanism for such acceleration—a Fermi acceleration trap caused by Earth’s bow shock interacting with the solar wind.

    • D. L. Turner
    • , L. B. Wilson III
    • , T. Z. Liu
    • , I. J. Cohen
    • , S. J. Schwartz
    • , A. Osmane
    • , J. F. Fennell
    • , J. H. Clemmons
    • , J. B. Blake
    • , J. Westlake
    • , B. H. Mauk
    • , A. N. Jaynes
    • , T. Leonard
    • , D. N. Baker
    • , R. J. Strangeway
    • , C. T. Russell
    • , D. J. Gershman
    • , L. Avanov
    • , B. L. Giles
    • , R. B. Torbert
    • , J. Broll
    • , R. G. Gomez
    • , S. A. Fuselier
    •  & J. L. Burch
  • Letter |

    Topologically protected edge states realized in a square array of ring resonators are used to demonstrate a robust source of heralded single photons produced by spontaneous four-wave mixing.

    • Sunil Mittal
    • , Elizabeth A. Goldschmidt
    •  & Mohammad Hafezi
  • Letter |

    Similarity of antibody responses in HIV-1 transmission pairs reveals a significant impact of the virus genome on imprinting antibody responses.

    • Roger D. Kouyos
    • , Peter Rusert
    • , Claus Kadelka
    • , Michael Huber
    • , Alex Marzel
    • , Hanna Ebner
    • , Merle Schanz
    • , Thomas Liechti
    • , Nikolas Friedrich
    • , Dominique L. Braun
    • , Alexandra U. Scherrer
    • , Jacqueline Weber
    • , Therese Uhr
    • , Nicolas S. Baumann
    • , Christine Leemann
    • , Herbert Kuster
    • , Jean-Philippe Chave
    • , Matthias Cavassini
    • , Enos Bernasconi
    • , Matthias Hoffmann
    • , Alexandra Calmy
    • , Manuel Battegay
    • , Andri Rauch
    • , Sabine Yerly
    • , Vincent Aubert
    • , Thomas Klimkait
    • , Jürg Böni
    • , Karin J. Metzner
    • , Huldrych F. Günthard
    • , Alexandra Trkola
    • , Alexia Anagnostopoulos
    • , Manuel Battegay
    • , Enos Bernasconi
    • , Jürg Böni
    • , Dominique L. Braun
    • , Heiner C. Bucher
    • , Alexandra Calmy
    • , Matthias Cavassini
    • , Angela Ciuffi
    • , Günter Dollenmaier
    • , Matthias Egger
    • , Luigia Elzi
    • , Jan Fehr
    • , Jacques Fellay
    • , Hansjakob Furrer
    • , Christoph A. Fux
    • , Huldrych F. Günthard
    • , David Haerry
    • , Barbara Hasse
    • , Hans H. Hirsch
    • , Matthias Hoffmann
    • , Irene Hösli
    • , Michael Huber
    • , Christian Kahlert
    • , Laurent Kaiser
    • , Olivia Keiser
    • , Thomas Klimkait
    • , Roger D. Kouyos
    • , Helen Kovari
    • , Bruno Ledergerber
    • , Gladys Martinetti
    • , Begona Martinez de Tejada
    • , Catia Marzolini
    • , Karin J. Metzner
    • , Nicolas Müller
    • , Dunja Nicca
    • , Paolo Paioni
    • , Guiseppe Pantaleo
    • , Matthieu Perreau
    • , Andri Rauch
    • , Christoph Rudin
    • , Alexandra U. Scherrer
    • , Patrick Schmid
    • , Roberto Speck
    • , Marcel Stöckle
    • , Philip Tarr
    • , Alexandra Trkola
    • , Pietro Vernazza
    • , Gilles Wandeler
    • , Rainer Weber
    •  & Sabine Yerly
  • Letter |

    Efficient terahertz harmonic generation—challenging but important for ultrahigh-speed optoelectronic technologies—is demonstrated in graphene through a nonlinear process that could potentially be generalized to other materials.

    • Hassan A. Hafez
    • , Sergey Kovalev
    • , Jan-Christoph Deinert
    • , Zoltán Mics
    • , Bertram Green
    • , Nilesh Awari
    • , Min Chen
    • , Semyon Germanskiy
    • , Ulf Lehnert
    • , Jochen Teichert
    • , Zhe Wang
    • , Klaas-Jan Tielrooij
    • , Zhaoyang Liu
    • , Zongping Chen
    • , Akimitsu Narita
    • , Klaus Müllen
    • , Mischa Bonn
    • , Michael Gensch
    •  & Dmitry Turchinovich
  • Letter |

    Cell collectives in embryonic tissues undergo a fluid-to-solid jamming transition, similar to those that occur in soft materials such as foams, emulsions and colloidal suspensions, to physically sculpt the vertebrate body axis.

    • Alessandro Mongera
    • , Payam Rowghanian
    • , Hannah J. Gustafson
    • , Elijah Shelton
    • , David A. Kealhofer
    • , Emmet K. Carn
    • , Friedhelm Serwane
    • , Adam A. Lucio
    • , James Giammona
    •  & Otger Campàs
  • Letter |

    A teleported controlled-NOT gate is realized experimentally between two logical qubits implemented as superconducting cavity quantum memories, thus demonstrating an important tool for universal computation in a quantum modular architecture.

    • Kevin S. Chou
    • , Jacob Z. Blumoff
    • , Christopher S. Wang
    • , Philip C. Reinhold
    • , Christopher J. Axline
    • , Yvonne Y. Gao
    • , L. Frunzio
    • , M. H. Devoret
    • , Liang Jiang
    •  & R. J. Schoelkopf
  • Letter |

    Emission from the radio counterpart of the gravitation-wave event GW170817 was powered by a wide-angle outflow at early times, but probably dominated by a narrowly collimated jet at later times.

    • K. P. Mooley
    • , A. T. Deller
    • , O. Gottlieb
    • , E. Nakar
    • , G. Hallinan
    • , S. Bourke
    • , D. A. Frail
    • , A. Horesh
    • , A. Corsi
    •  & K. Hotokezaka
  • Letter |

    Four transcription factors that specify keratinocyte cell fate, facilitate in vivo reprogramming of wound-resident mesenchymal cells, epithealization and regeneration of skin epithelial tissues in mice.

    • Masakazu Kurita
    • , Toshikazu Araoka
    • , Tomoaki Hishida
    • , David D. O’Keefe
    • , Yuta Takahashi
    • , Akihisa Sakamoto
    • , Masahiro Sakurai
    • , Keiichiro Suzuki
    • , Jun Wu
    • , Mako Yamamoto
    • , Reyna Hernandez-Benitez
    • , Alejandro Ocampo
    • , Pradeep Reddy
    • , Maxim Nikolaievich Shokhirev
    • , Pierre Magistretti
    • , Estrella Núñez Delicado
    • , Hitomi Eto
    • , Kiyonori Harii
    •  & Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
  • Letter |

    Maps of Jupiter’s internal magnetic field at a range of depths reveal an unusual morphology, suggesting that Jupiter’s dynamo, unlike Earth’s, does not operate in a thick, homogeneous shell.

    • Kimberly M. Moore
    • , Rakesh K. Yadav
    • , Laura Kulowski
    • , Hao Cao
    • , Jeremy Bloxham
    • , John E. P. Connerney
    • , Stavros Kotsiaros
    • , John L. Jørgensen
    • , José M. G. Merayo
    • , David J. Stevenson
    • , Scott J. Bolton
    •  & Steven M. Levin
  • Letter |

    Arbitrarily shaped, defect-free three-dimensional synthetic structures with up to 72 individually controlled atoms are assembled using holographic methods and moving tweezers.

    • Daniel Barredo
    • , Vincent Lienhard
    • , Sylvain de Léséleuc
    • , Thierry Lahaye
    •  & Antoine Browaeys
  • Letter |

    Rates of radiative heat transfer between sub-wavelength planar membranes are experimentally and theoretically shown to exceed the blackbody limit in the far field by more than two orders of magnitude.

    • Dakotah Thompson
    • , Linxiao Zhu
    • , Rohith Mittapally
    • , Seid Sadat
    • , Zhen Xing
    • , Patrick McArdle
    • , M. Mumtaz Qazilbash
    • , Pramod Reddy
    •  & Edgar Meyhofer
  • Letter |

    Integrative analyses identify host proteins that are modulated by Zika virus at multiple levels and provide a comprehensive framework for the understanding of Zika virus-induced changes to cellular pathways.

    • Pietro Scaturro
    • , Alexey Stukalov
    • , Darya A. Haas
    • , Mirko Cortese
    • , Kalina Draganova
    • , Anna Płaszczyca
    • , Ralf Bartenschlager
    • , Magdalena Götz
    •  & Andreas Pichlmair
  • Letter |

    The plant receptor kinase co-receptor BAK1 contains phosphosites that are required for immune function but not for brassinosteroid-regulated growth in Arabidopsis thaliana; an additional tyrosine phosphosite may be required for the function of many Arabidopsis receptor kinases.

    • Artemis Perraki
    • , Thomas A. DeFalco
    • , Paul Derbyshire
    • , Julian Avila
    • , David Séré
    • , Jan Sklenar
    • , Xingyun Qi
    • , Lena Stransfeld
    • , Benjamin Schwessinger
    • , Yasuhiro Kadota
    • , Alberto P. Macho
    • , Shushu Jiang
    • , Daniel Couto
    • , Keiko U. Torii
    • , Frank L. H. Menke
    •  & Cyril Zipfel
  • Letter |

    Cotranslational assembly is a prevalent mechanism for the formation of oligomeric complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with one subunit serving as scaffold for the translation of partner subunits.

    • Ayala Shiber
    • , Kristina Döring
    • , Ulrike Friedrich
    • , Kevin Klann
    • , Dorina Merker
    • , Mostafa Zedan
    • , Frank Tippmann
    • , Günter Kramer
    •  & Bernd Bukau
  • Letter | | open

    Electron acceleration to very high energies is achieved in a single step by injecting electrons into a ‘wake’ of charge created in a 10-metre-long plasma by speeding long proton bunches.

    • E. Adli
    • , A. Ahuja
    • , O. Apsimon
    • , R. Apsimon
    • , A.-M. Bachmann
    • , D. Barrientos
    • , F. Batsch
    • , J. Bauche
    • , V. K. Berglyd Olsen
    • , M. Bernardini
    • , T. Bohl
    • , C. Bracco
    • , F. Braunmüller
    • , G. Burt
    • , B. Buttenschön
    • , A. Caldwell
    • , M. Cascella
    • , J. Chappell
    • , E. Chevallay
    • , M. Chung
    • , D. Cooke
    • , H. Damerau
    • , L. Deacon
    • , L. H. Deubner
    • , A. Dexter
    • , S. Doebert
    • , J. Farmer
    • , V. N. Fedosseev
    • , R. Fiorito
    • , R. A. Fonseca
    • , F. Friebel
    • , L. Garolfi
    • , S. Gessner
    • , I. Gorgisyan
    • , A. A. Gorn
    • , E. Granados
    • , O. Grulke
    • , E. Gschwendtner
    • , J. Hansen
    • , A. Helm
    • , J. R. Henderson
    • , M. Hüther
    • , M. Ibison
    • , L. Jensen
    • , S. Jolly
    • , F. Keeble
    • , S.-Y. Kim
    • , F. Kraus
    • , Y. Li
    • , S. Liu
    • , N. Lopes
    • , K. V. Lotov
    • , L. Maricalva Brun
    • , M. Martyanov
    • , S. Mazzoni
    • , D. Medina Godoy
    • , V. A. Minakov
    • , J. Mitchell
    • , J. C. Molendijk
    • , J. T. Moody
    • , M. Moreira
    • , P. Muggli
    • , E. Öz
    • , C. Pasquino
    • , A. Pardons
    • , F. Peña Asmus
    • , K. Pepitone
    • , A. Perera
    • , A. Petrenko
    • , S. Pitman
    • , A. Pukhov
    • , S. Rey
    • , K. Rieger
    • , H. Ruhl
    • , J. S. Schmidt
    • , I. A. Shalimova
    • , P. Sherwood
    • , L. O. Silva
    • , L. Soby
    • , A. P. Sosedkin
    • , R. Speroni
    • , R. I. Spitsyn
    • , P. V. Tuev
    • , M. Turner
    • , F. Velotti
    • , L. Verra
    • , V. A. Verzilov
    • , J. Vieira
    • , C. P. Welsch
    • , B. Williamson
    • , M. Wing
    • , B. Woolley
    •  & G. Xia
  • Letter |

    A lithographic patterning and release method is used to create a dense, fluctuating, Brownian system of mobile colloidal kite- and dart-shaped Penrose tiles over large areas that retains quasi-crystalline order.

    • Po-Yuan Wang
    •  & Thomas G. Mason
  • Letter |

    Stimulating the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons and providing growth-supportive substrate and chemoattraction can allow axon regrowth across anatomically complete spinal cord injuries in adult rodents.

    • Mark A. Anderson
    • , Timothy M. O’Shea
    • , Joshua E. Burda
    • , Yan Ao
    • , Sabry L. Barlatey
    • , Alexander M. Bernstein
    • , Jae H. Kim
    • , Nicholas D. James
    • , Alexandra Rogers
    • , Brian Kato
    • , Alexander L. Wollenberg
    • , Riki Kawaguchi
    • , Giovanni Coppola
    • , Chen Wang
    • , Timothy J. Deming
    • , Zhigang He
    • , Gregoire Courtine
    •  & Michael V. Sofroniew
  • Letter |

    The structures of tau filaments from patients with the neurodegenerative disorder Pick’s disease show that the filament fold is different from that of the tau filaments found in Alzheimer’s disease.

    • Benjamin Falcon
    • , Wenjuan Zhang
    • , Alexey G. Murzin
    • , Garib Murshudov
    • , Holly J. Garringer
    • , Ruben Vidal
    • , R. Anthony Crowther
    • , Bernardino Ghetti
    • , Sjors H. W. Scheres
    •  & Michel Goedert