Letters

  • Letter |

    Metagenomic and soil microcosm analyses identify abundant biosynthetic gene clusters in genomes of microorganisms from a northern Californian grassland ecosystem that provide a potential source for the future development of bacterial natural products.

    • Alexander Crits-Christoph
    • , Spencer Diamond
    • , Cristina N. Butterfield
    • , Brian C. Thomas
    •  & Jillian F. Banfield
  • Letter |

    A subset of synaptic proteins are cumulatively phosphorylated during wakefulness and dephosphorylated during sleep, in accordance with sleep need; this may represent a common mechanism underlying regulation of both synaptic homeostasis and sleep–wake homeostasis.

    • Zhiqiang Wang
    • , Jing Ma
    • , Chika Miyoshi
    • , Yuxin Li
    • , Makito Sato
    • , Yukino Ogawa
    • , Tingting Lou
    • , Chengyuan Ma
    • , Xue Gao
    • , Chiyu Lee
    • , Tomoyuki Fujiyama
    • , Xiaojie Yang
    • , Shuang Zhou
    • , Noriko Hotta-Hirashima
    • , Daniela Klewe-Nebenius
    • , Aya Ikkyu
    • , Miyo Kakizaki
    • , Satomi Kanno
    • , Liqin Cao
    • , Satoru Takahashi
    • , Junmin Peng
    • , Yonghao Yu
    • , Hiromasa Funato
    • , Masashi Yanagisawa
    •  & Qinghua Liu
  • Letter |

    Remote deterministic spin–spin entanglement is achieved using nitrogen–vacancy centres in diamonds and a single-photon entangling protocol, with much improved entangling rates compared to previously used two-photon protocols.

    • Peter C. Humphreys
    • , Norbert Kalb
    • , Jaco P. J. Morits
    • , Raymond N. Schouten
    • , Raymond F. L. Vermeulen
    • , Daniel J. Twitchen
    • , Matthew Markham
    •  & Ronald Hanson
  • Letter |

    The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum proceeds through two distinct channels: it is dominated at low temperatures by the more active step sites and at high temperatures by the more abundant terrace sites of the platinum surface.

    • Jannis Neugebohren
    • , Dmitriy Borodin
    • , Hinrich W. Hahn
    • , Jan Altschäffel
    • , Alexander Kandratsenka
    • , Daniel J. Auerbach
    • , Charles T. Campbell
    • , Dirk Schwarzer
    • , Dan J. Harding
    • , Alec M. Wodtke
    •  & Theofanis N. Kitsopoulos
  • Letter |

    A mechanism for the unfolding of guanine-rich DNA ‘quadruplexes’ by helicases is suggested, based on the structure of a DNA-bound helicase.

    • Michael C. Chen
    • , Ramreddy Tippana
    • , Natalia A. Demeshkina
    • , Pierre Murat
    • , Shankar Balasubramanian
    • , Sua Myong
    •  & Adrian R. Ferré-D’Amaré
  • Letter |

    Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores and ice-penetrating radar observations are used to demonstrate that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has not retreated progressively during the Holocene epoch, but has instead showed periods of retreat and re-advance.

    • J. Kingslake
    • , R. P. Scherer
    • , T. Albrecht
    • , J. Coenen
    • , R. D. Powell
    • , R. Reese
    • , N. D. Stansell
    • , S. Tulaczyk
    • , M. G. Wearing
    •  & P. L. Whitehouse
  • Letter |

    Analysis of cosmogenic isotopes from a marine sediment core shows that much of the land-based East Antarctic Ice Sheet has remained stable for the past eight million years, including during the warm Pliocene epoch.

    • Jeremy D. Shakun
    • , Lee B. Corbett
    • , Paul R. Bierman
    • , Kristen Underwood
    • , Donna M. Rizzo
    • , Susan R. Zimmerman
    • , Marc W. Caffee
    • , Tim Naish
    • , Nicholas R. Golledge
    •  & Carling C. Hay
  • Letter |

    Melanocytes above the haematopoietic niche protect haematopoietic stem cells from ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage in aquatic vertebrates throughout evolution; this niche moved to the bone marrow during the transition to terrestrial life.

    • Friedrich G. Kapp
    • , Julie R. Perlin
    • , Elliott J. Hagedorn
    • , John M. Gansner
    • , Daniel E. Schwarz
    • , Lauren A. O’Connell
    • , Nicholas S. Johnson
    • , Chris Amemiya
    • , David E. Fisher
    • , Ute Wölfle
    • , Eirini Trompouki
    • , Charlotte M. Niemeyer
    • , Wolfgang Driever
    •  & Leonard I. Zon
  • Letter |

    Cryo-electron microscopy studies of distinct, catalytically active and inactive filaments of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 reveal the structural basis of its regulation.

    • Moritz Hunkeler
    • , Anna Hagmann
    • , Edward Stuttfeld
    • , Mohamed Chami
    • , Yakir Guri
    • , Henning Stahlberg
    •  & Timm Maier
  • Letter |

    A module of co-inhibitory T cell receptors, driven by the cytokine IL-27, is identified in mice that is regulated by the transcription factors PRDM1 and c-MAF.

    • Norio Chihara
    • , Asaf Madi
    • , Takaaki Kondo
    • , Huiyuan Zhang
    • , Nandini Acharya
    • , Meromit Singer
    • , Jackson Nyman
    • , Nemanja D. Marjanovic
    • , Monika S. Kowalczyk
    • , Chao Wang
    • , Sema Kurtulus
    • , Travis Law
    • , Yasaman Etminan
    • , James Nevin
    • , Christopher D. Buckley
    • , Patrick R. Burkett
    • , Jason D. Buenrostro
    • , Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen
    • , Ana C. Anderson
    • , Aviv Regev
    •  & Vijay K. Kuchroo
  • Letter |

    Coupling graphene sheets with a silicon nitride ring microresonator allows the nonlinear cavity dynamics to be altered by a gate voltage, resulting in tunable, chip-scale, optical frequency combs.

    • Baicheng Yao
    • , Shu-Wei Huang
    • , Yuan Liu
    • , Abhinav Kumar Vinod
    • , Chanyeol Choi
    • , Michael Hoff
    • , Yongnan Li
    • , Mingbin Yu
    • , Ziying Feng
    • , Dim-Lee Kwong
    • , Yu Huang
    • , Yunjiang Rao
    • , Xiangfeng Duan
    •  & Chee Wei Wong
  • Letter |

    Highly insulating silicon-based molecules, engineered so that conduction is fully suppressed by σ quantum interference even for molecules less than a nanometre long, could prove useful in molecular-scale electronic circuitry.

    • Marc H. Garner
    • , Haixing Li
    • , Yan Chen
    • , Timothy A. Su
    • , Zhichun Shangguan
    • , Daniel W. Paley
    • , Taifeng Liu
    • , Fay Ng
    • , Hexing Li
    • , Shengxiong Xiao
    • , Colin Nuckolls
    • , Latha Venkataraman
    •  & Gemma C. Solomon
  • Letter |

    Observations of broadband emission from lightning on Jupiter at 600 megahertz show a lightning discharge mechanism similar to that of terrestrial lightning and indicate increased moist convection near Jupiter’s poles.

    • Shannon Brown
    • , Michael Janssen
    • , Virgil Adumitroaie
    • , Sushil Atreya
    • , Scott Bolton
    • , Samuel Gulkis
    • , Andrew Ingersoll
    • , Steven Levin
    • , Cheng Li
    • , Liming Li
    • , Jonathan Lunine
    • , Sidharth Misra
    • , Glenn Orton
    • , Paul Steffes
    • , Fachreddin Tabataba-Vakili
    • , Ivana Kolmašová
    • , Masafumi Imai
    • , Ondřej Santolík
    • , William Kurth
    • , George Hospodarsky
    • , Donald Gurnett
    •  & John Connerney
  • Letter |

    A single-chain variable fragment of the antibody E06, which binds to the phosphocholine headgroup of oxidized phospholipids, blocks the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by macrophages, and reduces inflammation and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic mice.

    • Xuchu Que
    • , Ming-Yow Hung
    • , Calvin Yeang
    • , Ayelet Gonen
    • , Thomas A. Prohaska
    • , Xiaoli Sun
    • , Cody Diehl
    • , Antti Määttä
    • , Dalia E. Gaddis
    • , Karen Bowden
    • , Jennifer Pattison
    • , Jeffrey G. MacDonald
    • , Seppo Ylä-Herttuala
    • , Pamela L. Mellon
    • , Catherine C. Hedrick
    • , Klaus Ley
    • , Yury I. Miller
    • , Christopher K. Glass
    • , Kirk L. Peterson
    • , Christoph J. Binder
    • , Sotirios Tsimikas
    •  & Joseph L. Witztum
  • Letter |

    By engineering entropy-tuning changes into distal sites of a bacterial adenylate kinase, an allosteric tuning mechanism based on protein dynamics is revealed.

    • Harry G. Saavedra
    • , James O. Wrabl
    • , Jeremy A. Anderson
    • , Jing Li
    •  & Vincent J. Hilser
  • Letter |

    The translation speed of tropical cyclones has decreased globally by 10% over the past 70 years, compounding the increases in cyclone-related local rainfall that have resulted from anthropogenic warming.

    • James P. Kossin
  • Letter |

    The coordinated action of BREVIS RADIX (BRX) and PROTEIN KINASE ASSOCIATED WITH BRX (PAX) regulates auxin flux during the development of protophloem sieve elements in the root meristem of Arabidopsis.

    • P. Marhava
    • , A. E. L. Bassukas
    • , M. Zourelidou
    • , M. Kolb
    • , B. Moret
    • , A. Fastner
    • , W. X. Schulze
    • , P. Cattaneo
    • , U. Z. Hammes
    • , C. Schwechheimer
    •  & C. S. Hardtke