Volume 1 Issue 2 February 2017

Volume 1 Issue 2

Migliano et al. developed a technology to map proximity networks in hunter-gatherers, and show that their social networks exhibit increased efficiency for information exchange due to a few strong ‘friendship’ ties connecting unrelated families. Such friendships are more important than family ties in predicting knowledge sharing. See Migliano et al. 1, 0043 (2017).

Artist: Paulo Sayeg, Designer: Rodolph Schlaepfer (RKSmedia)

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    In this issue, two articles that focus on two very different contexts — gun violence in US schools and the death toll in the Syrian conflict — highlight the complexities involved in quantifying and interpreting patterns of violence.

Comment and Opinion

  • World View |

    The way in which data on conflict violence is collected can not only lead to severe underestimation of the human toll of conflict, but also to misinterpretation of trends in conflict violence, says Megan Price.

    • Megan Price
  • Comment |

    Education reform in the United States has stalled and persistent achievement gaps remain. The challenges of overcoming socioeconomic disadvantages cannot be ignored if we are to develop an education system that will prepare all students to be productive members of the twenty-first century.

    • Paul Reville
  • Comment |

    Business ethics research is not currently a cumulative science, but it must become one. The benefits to humanity from research that helps firms improve their ethics could be enormous, especially if that research also shows that strong ethics improves the effectiveness of companies.

    • Jonathan Haidt
    •  & Linda Trevino
  • Comment |

    Clinically useful tools to identify the aberrant neural circuitry in individuals with psychiatric illness are lacking, as are treatments that do more than just address symptoms. Neuroplasticity-based treatments and computational neuroscience may hold some of the keys to unlocking the golden age of psychiatry.

    • Sophia Vinogradov

Research Highlights

News & Views

  • News and Views |

    A study now finds that visual perceptual learning of complex features occurs due to enhancement of later, decision-related stages of visual processing, rather than earlier, visual encoding stages. It is suggested that strengthening of the readout of sensory information between stages may be reinforced by an implicit reward learning mechanism.

    • Yuka Sasaki
    •  & Takeo Watanabe

Review

  • Review Article |

    McAuliffe et al. synthesize recent behavioural and neuroscientific evidence on the development of fairness behaviours in children, which shows that the signatures of human fairness can be traced in childhood.

    • Katherine McAuliffe
    • , Peter R. Blake
    • , Nikolaus Steinbeis
    •  & Felix Warneken

Research

  • Letter |

    Pah et al. analyse gun violence incidents at US schools for the period 1990–2013 and find heightened rates in the period 2007–2013. Indicators of economic distress significantly correlate with increases in the rate of gun violence.

    • A. R. Pah
    • , J. Hagan
    • , A. L. Jennings
    • , A. Jain
    • , K. Albrecht
    • , A. J. Hockenberry
    •  & L. A. N. Amaral
  • Letter |

    By developing wireless sensors to track social interactions among hunter-gatherers in the Republic of the Congo and the Philippines, Migliano et al. find that a few strong friendship ties connecting unrelated families lead to more efficient social networks.

    • A. B. Migliano
    • , A. E. Page
    • , J. Gómez-Gardeñes
    • , G. D. Salali
    • , S. Viguier
    • , M. Dyble
    • , J. Thompson
    • , Nikhill Chaudhary
    • , D. Smith
    • , J. Strods
    • , R. Mace
    • , M. G. Thomas
    • , V. Latora
    •  & L. Vinicius
  • Letter |

    Orangutan kiss-squeaks — voiceless consonant-like calls — exhibit rich acoustic variation and clear acoustic signature, conveying information about population, size class, context and individual identity.

    • Adriano R. Lameira
    • , Raquel Vicente
    • , António Alexandre
    • , Gail Campbell-Smith
    • , Cheryl Knott
    • , Serge Wich
    •  & Madeleine E. Hardus
  • Letter |

    Over six experiments, Kanakogi et al. show that infants as young as 6 months support third-party interventions that protect victims from aggressors. This suggests that human emphasis upon such acts is rooted within the preverbal infant’s mind.

    • Yasuhiro Kanakogi
    • , Yasuyuki Inoue
    • , Goh Matsuda
    • , David Butler
    • , Kazuo Hiraki
    •  & Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi