Browse Articles

  • Perspective |

    Consistent failure over the past few decades to reduce the high prevalence of stress-related disorders has motivated a search for alternative research strategies. Resilience refers to the phenomenon of many people maintaining mental health despite exposure to psychological or physical adversity. Instead of aiming to understand the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders, resilience research focuses on protective mechanisms that shield people against the development of such disorders and tries to exploit its insights to improve treatment and, in particular, disease prevention. To fully harness the potential of resilience research, a critical appraisal of the current state of the art — in terms of basic concepts and key methods — is needed. We highlight challenges to resilience research and make concrete conceptual and methodological proposals to improve resilience research. Most importantly, we propose to focus research on the dynamic processes of successful adaptation to stressors in prospective longitudinal studies.

    • Raffael Kalisch
    • , Dewleen G. Baker
    • , Ulrike Basten
    • , Marco P. Boks
    • , George A. Bonanno
    • , Eddie Brummelman
    • , Andrea Chmitorz
    • , Guillén Fernàndez
    • , Christian J. Fiebach
    • , Isaac Galatzer-Levy
    • , Elbert Geuze
    • , Sergiu Groppa
    • , Isabella Helmreich
    • , Talma Hendler
    • , Erno J. Hermans
    • , Tanja Jovanovic
    • , Thomas Kubiak
    • , Klaus Lieb
    • , Beat Lutz
    • , Marianne B. Müller
    • , Ryan J. Murray
    • , Caroline M. Nievergelt
    • , Andreas Reif
    • , Karin Roelofs
    • , Bart P. F. Rutten
    • , David Sander
    • , Anita Schick
    • , Oliver Tüscher
    • , Ilse Van Diest
    • , Anne-Laura van Harmelen
    • , Ilya M. Veer
    • , Eric Vermetten
    • , Christiaan H. Vinkers
    • , Tor D. Wager
    • , Henrik Walter
    • , Michèle Wessa
    • , Michael Wibral
    •  & Birgit Kleim
  • Editorial |

    A paper in this issue identifies a persistent influence of irrelevant information in social contexts, which results in biased and unfair judgements. These widespread social biases can be insidious as they inadvertently enter research and policy.

  • News and Views |

    In the United States, direct-to-consumer advertisements for medications must disclose each specific side-effect risk. A new study demonstrates a counterintuitive dilution effect: people perceive drug descriptions that include both serious and trivial side effects as less risky than descriptions that only list serious side effects.

    • Brian J. Zikmund-Fisher
  • Article |

    Women often behave more prosocially than men. Soutschek et al. use pharmacology and neuroimaging to show that the neural reward system appears to be more sensitive to prosocial rewards in women than men, providing a neurobiological account for this gender difference.

    • Alexander Soutschek
    • , Christopher J. Burke
    • , Anjali Raja Beharelle
    • , Robert Schreiber
    • , Susanna C. Weber
    • , Iliana I. Karipidis
    • , Jolien ten Velden
    • , Bernd Weber
    • , Helene Haker
    • , Tobias Kalenscher
    •  & Philippe N. Tobler
  • News and Views |

    A new study shows that brain responses to unfairness during economic decision-making can predict current and future depression indices. Neural response patterns in the amygdala related to inequity tracked indices of depression, particularly for prosocial individuals who tend to be most self-sacrificing.

    • Megan E. Speer
    •  & Mauricio R. Delgado
  • Letter |

    Cao et al. demonstrate that people systematically rely on social base rates when making judgements about individuals, even when these base rates are statistically irrelevant. The authors show that multiple remedies are required to eliminate this bias of base rate intrusion.

    • Jack Cao
    • , Max Kleiman-Weiner
    •  & Mahzarin R. Banaji
  • Article |

    Pedroni et al. show that risk preferences vary across behavioural elicitation methods, challenging the view that risk preferences can be consistently captured by a single method.

    • Andreas Pedroni
    • , Renato Frey
    • , Adrian Bruhin
    • , Gilles Dutilh
    • , Ralph Hertwig
    •  & Jörg Rieskamp
  • News and Views |

    It is easier to make sense of the visual environment if we know where to look. Eye movement measurements show just how quickly we can find the informative parts of a scene, even when we do not know what to expect.

    • Kyle R. Cave
  • Article |

    Using behavioural experiments and computational modelling, Navajas and colleagues provide a systematic characterization of individual differences in human confidence.

    • Joaquin Navajas
    • , Chandni Hindocha
    • , Hebah Foda
    • , Mehdi Keramati
    • , Peter E. Latham
    •  & Bahador Bahrami
  • News and Views |

    A quasi-experimental study of the generalized enforcement of low-level violations in New York City finds that proactive policing increases crime. This finding suggests the importance of taking a careful look at aggressive enforcement approaches used by police to reduce crime as they may be causing harm in urban communities.

    • David Weisburd
  • Letter |

    Using the 2014 New York Police Department slowdown as a natural experiment, the authors show that civilian complaints of major crime decreased during and after reductions in proactive policing, which challenges existing research on the topic.

    • Christopher M. Sullivan
    •  & Zachary P. O’Keeffe
  • Comment |

    Introduction of genetic evidence of a predisposition to violent or impulsive behaviour is on the rise in criminal trials. However, a panoply of data suggests that such evidence is ineffective at reducing judgements of culpability and punishment, and therefore its use in the legal process is likely to diminish.

    • Nicholas Scurich
    •  & Paul S. Appelbaum
  • Comment |

    Moral outrage is an ancient emotion that is now widespread on digital media and online social networks. How might these new technologies change the expression of moral outrage and its social consequences?

    • M. J. Crockett
  • Perspective |

    Friederici et al. outline a view of the neural organization of language that is compatible with a description of language as a biologically determined computational mechanism that yields an infinite number of hierarchically structured expressions.

    • Angela D. Friederici
    • , Noam Chomsky
    • , Robert C. Berwick
    • , Andrea Moro
    •  & Johan J. Bolhuis