Molecular Psychiatry



The bacterial peptidoglycan-sensing molecule Pglyrp2 modulates brain development and behavior

T Arentsen, Y Qian, S Gkotzis, T Femenia, T Wang, K Udekwu, H Forssberg and R Diaz Heijtz


Figure 1.

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Bacterial peptidoglycan from commensal gut microbiota and its sensing molecules are present in the developing brain. Peptidoglycan (PGN) levels were determined in serum (a) and the cerebellum (b) of specific pathogen free (SPF) and germ-free (GF) juvenile (that is, P25) male mice, as determined using the silkworm larvae plasma assay (serum: n=5 for SPF and n=7 for GF, and cerebellum: n=8 per group; **P<0.01 when compared with SPF control group). (c) The bar graphs show PGN levels in the developing cerebellum of C57BL/6 male mice (n=6 per group; ***P<0.001 when compared with the adult group). (d) PGN levels were measured during cerebellar development in both male (black bars) and female (red bars) mice at P3, P14, and P21 (n=5 for females and n=6 for males). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine the mRNA expression levels of Pglyrp1 (e), Pglyrp2 (f), Pglyrp3 (g), Pglyrp4 (h), Nod1 (i), Nod2 (j), Tlr2 (k) and PepT1 (l), which were examined in the striatum of male (black bars) and female (red bars) C57BL/6 mice during postnatal development (n=4 for P1 females and n=5 for the other postnatal age groups). Graphical visualization of PGN-sensing molecules and PepT1 expression levels during striatal development (m). The expression level of each gene examined was normalized to Hsp90ab1 levels and expressed relative to adult male levels (that is, P60). All data (al) are presented as means (±s.e.m.). (el) *P<0.05, **P<0.01, and ***P<0.001 when compared with their respective adult male group. Differences between male and female mice are indicated as follows: §P<0.05, §§P<0.01. The label is as follows: postnatal day (P).

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