Original Article

Leukemia (2009) 23, 2275–2280; doi:10.1038/leu.2009.181; published online 10 September 2009

Acute Leukemias

Adult acute erythroleukemia: an analysis of 91 patients treated at a single institution

F P S Santos1, S Faderl1, G Garcia-Manero1, C Koller1, M Beran1, S O'Brien1, S Pierce1, E J Freireich1, X Huang2, G Borthakur1, C Bueso-Ramos3, M de Lima4, M Keating1, J Cortes1, H Kantarjian1 and F Ravandi1

  1. 1Department of Leukemia, University of Texas - M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
  2. 2Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas - M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
  3. 3Department of Hematopathology, University of Texas - M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
  4. 4Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Texas - M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA

Correspondence: Dr F Ravandi, Department of Leukemia, University of Texas - M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 428, Houston, TX 77030, USA. E-mail: fravandi@mdanderson.org

Received 8 April 2009; Revised 14 July 2009; Accepted 21 July 2009; Published online 10 September 2009.

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Abstract

Acute erythroleukemia (AML-M6) is an uncommon subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); it is considered to have a poor prognosis. From 1 January 1980 to 21 May 2008, 91 patients with newly diagnosed AML-M6 were seen at the University of Texas–M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (UT–MDACC). Forty-five patients (50%) had a history of myelodysplatic syndrome (MDS), compared with 41% in our control group (patients with other AML subtypes) (P=0.08). Poor-risk cytogenetics were more common in patients with AML-M6 (61% versus 38%, P=0.001). Complete remission rates were 62% for patients with AML-M6, comparing with 58% for the control group (P=0.35). Median disease free survival (DFS) for patients with AML-M6 was 32 weeks, versus 49 weeks for the control group (P=0.05). Median overall survival (OS) of patients with AML-M6 was 36 weeks, compared with 43 weeks for the control group (P=0.60). On multivariate analysis for DFS and OS, AML-M6 was not an independent risk factor. AML-M6 is commonly associated with a previous diagnosis of MDS and poor-risk karyotype. The diagnosis of AML-M6 does not impart by itself a worse prognosis, and treatment decisions on this disease should be guided by well known AML prognostic factors.

Keywords:

acute erythroleukemia, clinical features, prognosis