Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology (2008) 18, 608–615; doi:10.1038/jes.2008.20; published online 16 April 2008

Bisphenol A (BPA) daily intakes in the United States: Estimates from the 2003–2004 NHANES urinary BPA data

Judy S Lakinda and Daniel Q Naimanb

  1. aLaKind Associates, LLC, Catonsville, Maryland, USA
  2. bDepartment of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Correspondence: Dr Judy S, LaKind, LaKind Associates, LLC, 106 Oakdale Avenue, Catonsville, MD 21228 USA. Tel/Fax: +410 788 8639. E-mail:

Received 24 January 2008; Accepted 25 February 2008; Published online 16 April 2008.



Investigations into human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) have, for the most part, assessed intake based on food consumption estimates combined with measurements or estimates of BPA in foods. In this study, nationally representative data on urinary levels of BPA in the United States (US) from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to estimate daily intake of BPA, assuming steady-state excretion. Distributions of intakes for the US population were determined for (i) all NHANES participants with urinary BPA data; (ii) participants by the following age groups: 6–11 years, 12–19 years, 20–39 years, 40–59 years, and 60+ years; and (iii) participants by gender. On the basis of the NHANES urinary BPA data and the assumptions described in this paper, daily BPA intakes for male participants are statistically significantly higher than for female participants, and there are statistically significant differences in daily BPA intakes according to age groups, with the oldest group having the lowest estimated intakes. Median intake was approximately three orders of magnitude below health-based guidance values of 50μg/kg-day.


bisphenol A, BPA, daily intake, NHANES, United States, urinary BPA


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