Hypertension Research

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Antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic and endothelial modulating activities of Orchis mascula

Nauman Aziz, Malik Hassan Mehmood, Hasan Salman Siddiqi, Saf-ur-Rehman Mandukhail, Fatima Sadiq, Wajiha Maan and Anwarul Hassan Gilani

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Figure 1.

Concentration–response curves showing the comparative vasorelaxant effects of acetylcholine (ACh) on phenylephrine (PE; 1 muM) induced vasoconstriction in aortae isolated from SHRs (hypertensive control), SHRs treated with 3% OM for two months (SHR+OM) and Wistar Koyoto rats (WKY, normotensive control). The symbols represent the meansplusminuss.e.m. of 5–10 preparations. (** P<0.01, *** P<0.001; compared with untreated SHRs; two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post-test correction).

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Figure 2.

Typical tracing showing the blood pressure-lowering effect of the crude extract of Orchis mascula (Om.Cr) (top) and bar chart representing the hypotensive effect of Om.Cr on mean arterial pressure (MAP) in anesthetized normotensive rats (bottom). The data represent the meanplusminuss.e.m. of 3 animals.

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Figure 3.

Effect of the crude extract of Orchis mascula (Om.Cr) on vascular contractions. The upper panel shows the effect of Om.Cr on basal tension without and with phentolamine (1 muM), in which the responses to each concentration were expressed as a percentage of the PE-induced contraction. The lower panel shows the vasodilator effect against phenylephrine (PE; 1 muM) and high K+ (80 mM) induced contractions in isolated rabbit aortic preparations. Values shown are meansplusminuss.e.m. of 4–6 measurements.

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Figure 4.

Effect of increasing the dose of Orchis mascula crude extract (Om.Cr) (top) and Verapamil (bottom) on Ca2+ concentration-response curves constructed in Ca2+-free and K+-rich (80 mM) medium in isolated rabbit aorta. Values shown are meansplusminuss.e.m. of 4–6 experiments. *** P<0.001; compared with control maximum, two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post-test correction).

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