Original Article

Hypertension Research (2008) 31, 1435–1443; doi:10.1291/hypres.31.1435

Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Risk of Hypertension Determined by Self Measurement of Blood Pressure at Home: The Ohasama Study

Megumi T Utsugi1,2, Takayoshi Ohkubo3, Masahiro Kikuya2, Ayumi Kurimoto4, Rie I Sato4, Kazuhiro Suzuki5, Hirohito Metoki2,4, Azusa Hara2, Yoshitaka Tsubono6 and Yutaka Imai2,3,4

  1. 1Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan
  2. 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Medicine, Sendai, Japan
  3. 3Department of Planning for Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Tohoku University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sendai, Japan
  4. 4Comprehensive Research and Education Center for Planning of Drug Development and Clinical Evaluation, Tohoku University 21st Century COE Program, Sendai, Japan
  5. 5Division of Community Health Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
  6. 6School of Public Policy, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

Correspondence: Megumi T. Utsugi, Ph.D., Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes' Project, Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Toyama 1–23–1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162–8636, Japan. E-mail: mutsugky@nih.go.jp

Received 5 July 2007; Accepted 2 March 2008.

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Abstract

It is well recognized that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduction of blood pressure (BP) measured by conventional BP measurement in Western countries; however, there is little evidence about these associations in other regions and there have been no reports on these associations using selfmeasured BP at home (home BP). The objective of this work was to investigate the associations of fruit and vegetable consumption and their related micronutrients with the reduction of hypertension risk by using home BP in Japanese residents. Data were obtained from 1,569 residents aged 35 and over who measured their home BP in a general population of Ohasama, Japan. Dietary intake was measured using a 141-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and then subjects were divided into tertiles according to fruit, vegetable, potassium, vitamin C, and β-carotene consumption. Hypertension was defined as home systolic/diastolic BP≥ 135/85 mmHg and/or the use of antihypertensive medication. The prevalence of home hypertension was 39.4% for men and 29.3% for women. After adjustment for all potential confounding factors, the highest-tertile consumptions of fruits, vegetables, potassium, and vitamin C were associated with a significantly lower risk of hypertension (45%, 38%, 46%, and 43% lower risk of home hypertension, respectively). In conclusion, this cross-sectional study based on home BP measurement suggests that high-level consumptions of fruits, vegetables, potassium, and vitamin C are associated with a significantly lower risk of hypertension.

Keywords:

fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, home blood pressure, hypertension, Japanese resident

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