Figure 8 - Pathways involved in acetylcholine-induced contraction of esophageal circular smooth muscle.

From the following article

Esophageal peristalsis

William G. Paterson

GI Motility online (2006)



AA, arachidonic acid ; cPLA2, cytosolic phospholipase A2; DAG, diacylglycerol; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; HSP, heat shock protein; M, muscarinic; MLC, myosin light chain ; P, inorganic phophate; PC-PLC, phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C; PKC, protein kinase C; PLD, phospholipase D; (Source: Harnett et al.,107 with permission from the American Physiological Society.)

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