About the editors


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Raj Goyal, M.D.

Raj Goyal, M.D.

Dr Raj K. Goyal is Mallinckrodt Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and staff physician at the VA Boston Healthcare System (VABHS). He earned his M.B. B.S. from Amritsar Medical College, Panjab University, and his M.D. from Maulana Azad Medical College, University of Delhi, in India. Following postdoctoral training at Yale University, he joined Baylor College of Medicine in 1971 and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in 1973. In 1978, he became chair of the Division of Gastroenterology at the University of Texas in San Antonio. In 1981, he joined Harvard Medical School and became chair of the Division of Gastroenterology at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston. He was later recruited to the VABHS and served as Associate Chief of Staff for Research and Development at the VABHS from 1995 to 2005. Dr. Goyal is an eminent gastroenterologist and an investigator whose research has provided some of the important advances in our understanding of esophageal and gastric physiology and diseases including Barrett's esophagus, enteric neurotransmission and the physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal and gastric motility. He provided the first evidence for the existence of muscarinic receptor subtypes. His work forms the basis of many current concepts regarding the regulation of esophageal sphincters, esophageal peristalsis, esophageal nocioceptors, gastroparesis and Barrett's esophagus. Dr Goyal has served on numerous editorial boards and was editor-in-chief of Gastroenterology from 1986 to 1991. He was the Founder President of the American Motility Society and is the recipient of its Distinguished Achievement Award.

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Reza Shaker, M.D.

Reza Shaker, M.D.

Dr Reza Shaker is Professor of Medicine, Radiology, and Otolaryngology, Chief of the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, and Director of the Digestive Disease Center at the Medical College of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, WI. He received his medical degree from Tehran University Medical School, Internal Medicine residency at Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center-Brooklyn, NY and Gastroenterology Fellowship at the Medical College of Wisconsin. He joined the faculty of the Medical College of Wisconsin in 1988 and became Chief of the Division of Gastroenterology and Director of the Digestive Disease Center in 1996. Dr Shaker is an internationally recognized gastroenterologist and an investigator in the field of dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and cerebral cortical control of gastrointestinal sensory motor function. His research has led to some of the seminal discoveries in the area of airway protection and has opened new avenues of investigation and treatment for patients with swallowing disorders. He was the first to describe that the deglutitive upper esophageal sphincter opening can be increased by strengthening exercises of the suprahyoid muscles. This led to development of rehabilitative exercises for upper esophageal sphincter dysphagia: the Shaker Exercise. His work has led to the description of the subliminal domain of gut sensory function, allowing investigation of brain-gut axis without the influence of cognitive processes in humans. He developed the field of functional interaction between the upper gut and aerodigestive tract that has resulted in discovery of several related reflexes. Dr. Shaker has developed the technique of transnasal unsedated upper GI endoscopy for concurrent evaluation of the aerodigestive and upper GI tracts. He is the founder of the Dysphagia Research Society and the Medical College of Wisconsin's Dysphagia Institute.


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