Genetics in Medicine (2009) 11, 577–581; doi:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181ae0935

Personalized medicine and disruptive innovation: Implications for technology assessment

Kevin A Schulman1,2,4, Ana Valverde Vidal1,3 and D Clay Ackerly1

  1. 1Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke Translational Medicine Institute, Durham, North Carolina
  2. 2Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina
  3. 3Departments of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina
  4. 4Health Sector Management Program, The Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Correspondence: Kevin A. Schulman, MD, Center for Clinical and Genetic Economics, Duke Clinical Research Institute, PO Box 17969, Durham, NC 27715. E-mail:

Received 25 March 2009; Accepted 30 April 2009; Published online 14 July 2009.

A previous draft of this paper was commissioned by the Initiative on Personalized Health Care, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Health and Human Services.

Disclosure: Dr Schulman reports receiving research support from Actelion Pharmaceuticals, Allergan, Amgen, Astellas Pharma, Bristol-Myers Squibb, The Duke Endowment, Genentech, Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson, Kellogg Foundation, Kureha Corporation, LifeMasters Supported SelfCare, Medtronic, Merck & Co, Nabi Biopharmaceuticals, National Patient Advocate Foundation, North Carolina Biotechnology Center, NovaCardia, Novartis, OSI Eyetech, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Scios, Tengion, Theravance, Thomson Healthcare, and Vertex Pharmaceuticals; receiving personal income for consulting from McKinsey & Company and the National Pharmaceutical Council; having equity in Alnylam Pharmaceuticals; having equity in and serving on the board of directors of Cancer Consultants, Inc; and having equity in and serving on the executive board of Faculty Connection, LLC. Dr Schulman has made available online a detailed listing of financial disclosures ( No other disclosures were reported.